Legislature(2017 - 2018)BUTROVICH 205

01/31/2018 08:00 AM Senate EDUCATION

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07:59:13 AM Start
07:59:40 AM SB99
08:57:32 AM Adjourn
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Heard & Held
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**Streamed live on AKL.tv**
                    ALASKA STATE LEGISLATURE                                                                                  
              SENATE EDUCATION STANDING COMMITTEE                                                                             
                        January 31, 2018                                                                                        
                           7:59 a.m.                                                                                            
MEMBERS PRESENT                                                                                                               
Senator Gary Stevens, Chair                                                                                                     
Senator Cathy Giessel                                                                                                           
Senator Tom Begich                                                                                                              
Senator Shelley Hughes                                                                                                          
MEMBERS ABSENT                                                                                                                
Senator John Coghill                                                                                                            
COMMITTEE CALENDAR                                                                                                            
SENATE BILL NO. 99                                                                                                              
"An Act relating  to early education programs  provided by school                                                               
districts; relating to funding for  early education programs; and                                                               
relating to the duties of the  state Board of Education and Early                                                               
     - HEARD & HELD                                                                                                             
PREVIOUS COMMITTEE ACTION                                                                                                     
BILL: SB  99                                                                                                                  
SHORT TITLE: PRE-ELEMENTARY PROGRAMS/FUNDING                                                                                    
SPONSOR(s): SENATOR(s) BEGICH                                                                                                   
03/29/17       (S)       READ THE FIRST TIME - REFERRALS                                                                        
03/29/17       (S)       EDC, FIN                                                                                               
04/07/17       (S)       EDC AT 8:00 AM BUTROVICH 205                                                                           
04/07/17       (S)       Heard & Held                                                                                           
04/07/17       (S)       MINUTE(EDC)                                                                                            
01/31/18       (S)       EDC AT 8:00 AM BUTROVICH 205                                                                           
WITNESS REGISTER                                                                                                              
SYDNEY LIENEMANN, Ph.D., Staff                                                                                                  
Senator Tom Begich                                                                                                              
Alaska State Legislature                                                                                                        
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT: Presented the sectional  analysis of SB 99 on                                                             
behalf of the sponsor.                                                                                                          
ANJI GALLANOS, Director                                                                                                         
Head Start Collaboration                                                                                                        
Department of Education and Early Development (DEED)                                                                            
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT: Presented information on SB 99.                                                                           
MINDY LOBAUGH, School Finance Specialist II                                                                                     
Department of Education and Early Development (DEED)                                                                            
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT: Presented information on SB 99.                                                                           
APRIL BLEVINS, Early Childhood Coordinator                                                                                      
Lower Kuskokwim School District                                                                                                 
Bethel, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT: Supported SB 99.                                                                                          
DAVID NEES, Research Associate                                                                                                  
Alaska Policy Forum                                                                                                             
Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                               
POSITION STATEMENT: Opposed SB 99.                                                                                            
ACTION NARRATIVE                                                                                                              
7:59:13 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR  GARY   STEVENS  called   the  Senate   Education  Standing                                                             
Committee meeting to  order at 7:59 a.m.  Present  at the call to                                                               
order were Senators Begich, Giessel, Hughes, and Chair Stevens.                                                                 
             SB  99-PRE-ELEMENTARY PROGRAMS/FUNDING                                                                         
7:59:40 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR  STEVENS announced  the  consideration of  SB  99. [SB  99,                                                               
version 30-LS035\O, was before the committee.]                                                                                  
8:00:08 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR BEGICH, Alaska State Legislature,  sponsor of SB 99, said                                                               
the Alaska Early  Education Program Act is an  attempt for Alaska                                                               
to  have  universal, voluntary  pre-K,  similar  to the  Oklahoma                                                               
model. Early education is imperative  for Alaska when considering                                                               
its long-term  economy in that  its students must be  prepared to                                                               
be  productive. High  quality early  education programs  improves                                                               
school   readiness,  reading   levels,  and   long-term  economic                                                               
performance, something  of great  concern to this  committee. For                                                               
over nine years, Alaska has  had demonstration programs that show                                                               
kids  are better  prepared when  they  have been  exposed to  and                                                               
experienced quality pre-K programs.                                                                                             
8:02:49 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR BEGICH  said SB  99 offers  districts the  opportunity to                                                               
develop   high-quality,  early   education   programs  that   are                                                               
culturally appropriate  and tailored to their  students through a                                                               
three-year grant  process. The  bill is designed  so there  is no                                                               
immediate massive economic impact  like previous pre-K proposals.                                                               
It  starts with  the  lowest performing  cohort  of schools.  The                                                               
cohort is  divided up  into five different  years. For  the first                                                               
cohort,  schools with  no preschool  programs begin  a three-year                                                               
process with  the Department of  Education and  Early Development                                                               
(EED).  Studies show  teachers must  be trained  and mentored  to                                                               
provide  quality   preschool  services,  so  DEED   will  provide                                                               
guidance  and  mentoring.  Each year,  for  five  years,  another                                                               
cohort would  be added  to begin the  three-year process.  At the                                                               
end of three  years, DEED would determine whether  to certify the                                                               
program  so  that students  in  the  preschool program  would  be                                                               
funded at half  the cost of a full-time student.  This would help                                                               
offset enrollment declines the state.                                                                                           
8:05:14 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  BEGICH  said  the  bill   would  integrate,  over  time,                                                               
coordinated,   evidence-based,   culturally   appropriate   early                                                               
education programs  that would complement and  not contradict the                                                               
early education work already done over the past eight years.                                                                    
8:05:40 AM                                                                                                                    
SYDNEY LIENEMANN, Ph.D., Staff,  Senator Tom Begich, Alaska State                                                               
Legislature, presented the sectional analysis of SB 99:                                                                         
     Section 1.                                                                                                               
      Establishes that elementary schools also include an                                                                       
       early education program, whether operated within a                                                                       
     public school or by an outside organization.                                                                               
     Section 2.                                                                                                               
     Establishes that a four or five-year-old, who has not                                                                      
     attended kindergarten, is eligible to attend a public                                                                      
     school early education program.                                                                                            
     Section 3.                                                                                                               
     Creates a stair-step, 3-year grant program to provide                                                                      
     training and assist a school district in developing an                                                                     
     early  education  program.  In  year  one,  the  lowest                                                                    
     performing 20%  of school districts (as  established in                                                                    
     2018)  will be  eligible  for a  grant  to establish  a                                                                    
     district-wide,  high quality  early education  program.                                                                    
     In year two, the next  lowest performing 20 % of school                                                                    
     districts  will be  eligible for  the three-year  grant                                                                    
     program  to establish  an early  education program.  At                                                                    
     the end  of the three-year grant  cycle, the Department                                                                    
     of  Education and  Early  Development (the  department)                                                                    
     will be  responsible for determining if  the district's                                                                    
     early education program  complies with state standards.                                                                    
     The grants will be available  to the next lowest 20% of                                                                    
     school  districts   until  all  school   districts  are                                                                    
     offered the opportunity to participate included.                                                                           
8:07:04 AM                                                                                                                    
     Section 4.                                                                                                               
     Directs   the  department   to   supervise  all   early                                                                    
     education  programs and  approve those  early education                                                                    
     programs created by the early education grant program.                                                                     
8:07:22 AM                                                                                                                    
     Section 5.                                                                                                               
         Defines an "early education program" as a pre-                                                                         
     kindergarten school  for students 3-5 years  old if its                                                                    
     primary   function  is   educational.  The   3-year-old                                                                    
     students  are not  included in  the  program this  bill                                                                    
     proposes,  but  are included  to  ensure  they are  not                                                                    
     excluded from existing State and Federal programs.                                                                         
8:07:47 AM                                                                                                                    
     Section 6.                                                                                                               
     Directs  the  board   to  adopt  regulations  regarding                                                                    
     funding as  well as  statewide and  local goals  for an                                                                    
     early education program.  Regulations shall ensure that                                                                    
     early  education programs  have the  flexibility to  be                                                                    
     locally  designed and  culturally appropriate,  so long                                                                    
     as  they  meet  early  education  standards.  An  early                                                                    
     education program  may be either  full day (6  hour) or                                                                    
     half day (at least 2 hours)                                                                                                
8:08:13 AM                                                                                                                    
     Section 7.                                                                                                               
     For funding purposes, an  early education student shall                                                                    
     be  counted  in  the school  district's  average  daily                                                                    
     membership  as  a  half  day  student  once  the  early                                                                    
     education program has been approved by the department.                                                                     
     Section 8.                                                                                                               
     Adds early  education to consideration  for determining                                                                    
     the number of elementary schools in a district.                                                                            
     Section 9.                                                                                                               
     Ensures  that early  education  students who  currently                                                                    
     receive State  or Federal  funding for  early education                                                                    
     are not included in the ADM for purposes of funding.                                                                       
8:08:48 AM                                                                                                                  
     Section 10.                                                                                                              
     Directs early  education program  staff to  be included                                                                    
     in those  organizations required to report  evidence of                                                                    
     child abuse.                                                                                                               
8:09:00 AM                                                                                                                    
     Section 11.                                                                                                              
     Repeals the early education grant  program in 10 years,                                                                    
     once all  school districts have had  the opportunity to                                                                    
8:09:11 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR STEVENS said he read an  article that suggested there is no                                                               
evidence  to  support  the  idea that  children  who  go  through                                                               
preschool programs perform better than those who do not.                                                                        
8:09:29 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  BEGICH responded  that most  data are  quite persuasive.                                                               
James  Heckman [American  economist] reports  that investment  in                                                               
early childhood  education is the  best way to  reduce [economic]                                                               
deficits.  Heckman  states  that investment  in  early  childhood                                                               
development   caused   reduced   needs  for   special   education                                                               
remediation,  better health  outcomes, reduced  needs for  social                                                               
services, and  lower criminal justice costs,  and increased self-                                                               
sufficiency and productivity among  families. The Perry Preschool                                                               
Project  followed children  into adulthood  and compared  them to                                                               
children  from the  same background  who did  not have  access to                                                               
high-quality  preschool.  They   showed  significant  results  in                                                               
better  personal  and   life  success  in  the   long  term.  The                                                               
Department  of Education  and Early  Development (DEED)  has data                                                               
that indicates  improvements in outcomes  in the  Lower Kuskokwim                                                               
School  District, Nome,  and to  a lesser  extent, in  Mat-Su and                                                               
Anchorage.  The  follow-up   research  for  Oklahoma's  preschool                                                               
programs,  which SB  99 is  modeled on,  with eighth,  ninth, and                                                               
tenth graders  who attended preschool programs  underscores their                                                               
8:11:50 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  BEGICH said  so there  is ample  evidence to  show early                                                               
education has  an impact.  This is a  different kind  of dividend                                                               
program that  pays out over  a lifetime.  Pre-K alone is  not the                                                               
answer  to  successfully  educate  children,  but  it  is  a  key                                                               
8:13:35 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR HUGHES noted  the sizeable fiscal note  and asked whether                                                               
the programs  would be optional  for districts and  families. She                                                               
also asked how many children  did Senator Begich envision in each                                                               
cohort.  Ten  percent  of  students  in the  state  are  in  Best                                                               
Beginnings and Head Start.                                                                                                      
8:14:44 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR BEGICH said the program  would be voluntary for districts                                                               
and parents always  have the option about  whether their children                                                               
would participate.  DEED could  answer in  more detail  about the                                                               
numbers.  For  each year  of  preschool-age  students, there  are                                                               
about 10,000 students statewide.  The percentage of students that                                                               
participate in preschool in states  that have programs range from                                                               
20 to 30  percent on the low  end to 80 percent on  the high end.                                                               
Alaska would  probably be in  the middle. The fiscal  note speaks                                                               
to 2,500 students  per cohort. The fiscal note  probably would be                                                               
high because the state values education.                                                                                        
8:17:04 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR HUGHES asked how the  state would know that families that                                                               
most needed preschool programs would choose them.                                                                               
8:18:45 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  BEGICH  said  DEED would  provide  mentorship  to  train                                                               
preschool  teachers to  understand  the  importance of  outreach.                                                               
DEED  would work  to  improve  the quality  of  teachers so  that                                                               
districts  and teachers  could effectively  let know  families of                                                               
the services available.                                                                                                         
8:20:51 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR HUGHES said  Head Start and Best  Beginnings programs are                                                               
good at  involving parents. She  wondered whether there  would be                                                               
family engagement and any requirements for family involvement.                                                                  
8:22:41 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  BEGICH said  evidence-based  programs  must have  family                                                               
involvement. DEED can give details  about what is working now and                                                               
why it is making a difference.                                                                                                  
8:23:54 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR   STEVENS    asked   for   a   definition    of   "cultural                                                               
8:24:15 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR BEGICH  responded it is  about ensuring that  elements of                                                               
local culture will  be incorporated. If a  district is developing                                                               
programs for  a Yupiit or  Inupiaq village, it  would incorporate                                                               
elements  of  that  culture,  so  families  are  engaged  in  the                                                               
process. His  short answer means  including a  cultural component                                                               
without sacrificing evidence-based practices for academic rigor.                                                                
8:26:54 AM                                                                                                                    
ANJI GALLANOS, Director, Head  Start Collaboration, Department of                                                               
Education and Early Development  (DEED), presented information on                                                               
SB  99. She  said  that when  she was  a  preschool teacher,  her                                                               
greatest success came from engaging  families. That background is                                                               
reflected in  the goals  set by  DEED for  pre-elementary program                                                               
grantees. Districts must work on  engaging and collaborating with                                                               
families  to  create  locally  designed  programs  reflective  of                                                               
cultures and families in communities.                                                                                           
8:29:15 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR BEGICH said the fiscal note  is large, but that is spread                                                               
over time. He asked for an  explanation of the number of students                                                               
in the fiscal note.                                                                                                             
8:30:59 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. GALLANOS  said DEED's first  step was to identify  the number                                                               
of  federally funded  Head Start  students  to avoid  duplicating                                                               
existing services.  DEED also identified  the number  of students                                                               
that would be served in the lowest performing districts.                                                                        
8:32:51 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR HUGHES asked for the actual numbers.                                                                                    
8:32:59 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. GALLANOS said the first  step is to determine which districts                                                               
are the  lowest performing and  by what measure. For  the initial                                                               
determination  of  numbers,  DEED identified  11  districts  with                                                               
about  700 students  to  be served.  Currently,  $3.2 million  is                                                               
provided  from  pre-elementary  grant  programs  that  serve  754                                                               
students. The  first cohort would  be 11 districts  serving about                                                               
750. The numbers can change each year.                                                                                          
8:34:34 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR HUGHES said about 10 percent  of students in this age are                                                               
being served now. After the 5  years, how many of 10,000 students                                                               
at each age would be served under the proposed program.                                                                         
8:35:16 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. GALLANOS  said currently pre-elementary programs  are serving                                                               
about 20  percent of  4-year-olds. The  grant would  roll through                                                               
cohorts and could  reach 80 percent, which is  similar to numbers                                                               
in other  states. Head  Start students would  not be  included in                                                               
the grant.                                                                                                                      
8:36:25 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  HUGHES  calculated that  the  fiscal  note was  too  low                                                               
because 5,500 out of 10,000 students was not 80 percent.                                                                        
8:36:52 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. GALLANOS said district enrollment varies.                                                                                   
8:37:12 AM                                                                                                                    
MINDY  LOBAUGH,  School  Finance  Specialist  II,  Department  of                                                               
Education and Early Development  (DEED), presented information on                                                               
SB 99.  She said these  students would be  funded at half  of the                                                               
full-time equivalent (FTE).                                                                                                     
8:37:41 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR BEGICH  said other proposed pre-K  attempts had immediate                                                               
costs of  $50 million.  This is  a slow roll  out from  the worst                                                               
performing  to  the  best  performing  districts  and  integrates                                                               
preschool funding  into the Base  Student Allocation  funding. It                                                               
is a limited grant program that ends after 10 years.                                                                            
8:38:42 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR HUGHES  asked if  her calculation  of 5,500  students was                                                               
correct  and how  does that  match the  projection of  80 percent                                                               
8:39:11 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR BEGICH said  the cohort is based on the  number in school                                                               
districts, not  a statewide number.  The first 11  districts that                                                               
would be  served are among  the smallest in the  state. Anchorage                                                               
would probably never be in the  cohort. It depends on the size of                                                               
districts and whether there are existing pre-K programs.                                                                        
8:40:19 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR HUGHES said  then she was mistaken in  multiplying 700 by                                                               
SENATOR BEGICH responded exactly.                                                                                               
8:40:28 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR GIESSEL asked if Head Start is federally funded.                                                                        
8:40:47 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. GALLANOS said by federal and state funds.                                                                                   
8:40:53 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR GIESSEL  asked about the  reference to  four-year-olds in                                                               
pre-elementary programs  separate from Head Start.  She asked who                                                               
funds those programs.                                                                                                           
8:41:02 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. GALLANOS  said pre-elementary  students in the  DEED's grants                                                               
are funded through state general funds.                                                                                         
8:41:11 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR GIESSEL  said she  is confused  because if  some students                                                               
are already in  pre-K programs, such as Head Start,  why is a new                                                               
grant program needed.                                                                                                           
8:41:33 AM                                                                                                                    
MS.  GALLANOS said  federally funded  Head Start  serves students                                                               
who  meet poverty  guidelines.  The state  has  3,500 Head  Start                                                               
slots for students from birth to  age five. The age ranges are 0-                                                               
3 and  3-5. About 762 students  are aged birth through  three. If                                                               
over  9,000 students  enrolled in  kindergarten this  year, there                                                               
are approximately  that many three- and  four-year-olds. Not many                                                               
students are  being served. The  state provides $3.2  million for                                                               
pre-elementary programs in 19 districts  that serve 750 students.                                                               
Some of  these students also  receive Head Start services  if the                                                               
district and Head Start partner,  such as in Bering Strait School                                                               
District and  the Anchorage School District.  The total statewide                                                               
is 10 percent being served.                                                                                                     
8:43:43 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  GIESSEL   asked  why  Head  Start   programs  cannot  be                                                               
8:43:53 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. GALLANOS said that is a  federal decision. Head Start has had                                                               
no  significant expansion  for several  years. Head  Start cannot                                                               
serve all students and not  all students would qualify because of                                                               
poverty guidelines. Head Start costs about $14,000 per kid.                                                                     
8:46:19 AM                                                                                                                    
APRIL  BLEVINS,  Early  Childhood  Coordinator,  Lower  Kuskokwim                                                               
School District, supported SB 99.  She said Alaska should provide                                                               
access to high quality early  childhood education to all children                                                               
to increase  school readiness and  promote academic  and lifelong                                                               
success.  The  state offers only limited pilot  funding for early                                                               
childhood  education. Many  communities  do not  meet Head  Start                                                               
guidelines for funding.                                                                                                         
Children  in  the  Lower Kuskokwim  School  District  (LK)  early                                                               
education   programs  show   growth  between   fall  and   spring                                                               
assessments. LK  data shows sign  long term benefits  to students                                                               
who  attended preschool.  Preschool  programs  also employ  local                                                               
residents. When  parents are employed,  everyone has  more access                                                               
to  a variety  of  services, such  as  counseling and  employment                                                               
services. LK has  preschool programs in ten of  its village sites                                                               
and Bethel serving  200 students. LK could serve  13 more village                                                               
sites with preschool funding. LK  could also provide professional                                                               
development   for  staff,   family   engagement,  and   community                                                               
8:48:45 AM                                                                                                                    
DAVID NEES,  Research Associate, Alaska Policy  Forum, opposed SB
99.  He said  DEED has  never  produced a  report showing  actual                                                               
results  of  preschool  programs.  Nationally, nine  out  of  ten                                                               
studies  show  no  measurable outcomes  for  preschool  programs,                                                               
including for  Head Start. The  judge in  the More [vs.  State of                                                               
Alaska] decision  ruled the Alaska Constitution  does not include                                                               
the right  to a public,  preschool education. DEED has  failed to                                                               
produce one paper to show academic benefits down the road.                                                                      
8:51:26 AM                                                                                                                    
MR.  NEES said  this  is  an answer  looking  for  a problem.  No                                                               
evidence exists to show pre-K is working.                                                                                       
8:51:58 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR STEVENS asked Mr. Nees to provide the studies.                                                                            
8:52:21 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR GIESSEL asked Ms. Lobaugh  to explain why the four fiscal                                                               
notes are more than $100 million when she adds them together.                                                                   
8:53:11 AM                                                                                                                    
MS.  LOBAUGH said  she completed  the public  education fund  and                                                               
foundation  program  fiscal  notes. The  kindergarten  enrollment                                                               
figure  (assuming   the  pre-K   count  would  be   similar)  was                                                               
multiplied by the  basic per student cost for the  state and then                                                               
halved to come up with a per student cost of $4,590.                                                                            
There  would likely  be about  515  students in  the cohort  that                                                               
might be  included in the  first year  of the grant  program. The                                                               
cost  of   the  first  year,   515  students  times   $4,590,  is                                                               
approximately $2.3 million.                                                                                                     
Figures for  subsequent years show  more districts  involved, but                                                               
funding for students  would also begin to be  integrated into the                                                               
student  funding formula  [and not  be part  of the  SB 99  grant                                                               
program]. That is the method for arriving at $11 million.                                                                       
8:55:31 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR GIESSEL  asked whether  her number  of over  $100 million                                                               
was accurate.                                                                                                                   
8:55:56 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. LOBUGH  said she  could only  speak to  the fiscal  notes she                                                               
8:56:26 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  BEGICH   said  DEED  has  provided   publicly  available                                                               
evidence about these pre-K programs.  He was disappointed to hear                                                               
the comment that DEED had not.  When he adds up the fiscal notes,                                                               
he does not get that number.                                                                                                    
Chair Stevens held SB 99 in committee.                                                                                          
8:57:32 AM                                                                                                                    
There being  no further  business to  come before  the committee,                                                               
Chair Stevens  adjourned the Senate Education  Standing Committee                                                               
at 8:57 a.m.                                                                                                                    

Document Name Date/Time Subjects
SB099_PreK_Ed_Funding_SponsorStatement_VersionO.pdf SEDC 1/31/2018 8:00:00 AM
SB 99
SB099_PreK_Ed_Funding_BillText_VersionO.PDF SEDC 1/31/2018 8:00:00 AM
SB 99
SB099_PreK_Ed_Funding_Sectional Analysis_VersionO.pdf SEDC 1/31/2018 8:00:00 AM
SB 99
SB099_PreK_Ed_Funding_FN1_Foundation.pdf SEDC 1/31/2018 8:00:00 AM
SB 99
SB099_PreK_Ed_Funding_FN2_EarlyLearning.pdf SEDC 1/31/2018 8:00:00 AM
SB 99
SB099_PreK_Ed_Funding_FN3_PreK_Grants.pdf SEDC 1/31/2018 8:00:00 AM
SB 99
SB099_PreK_Ed_Funding_FN4_PEF_Capitalization.pdf SEDC 1/31/2018 8:00:00 AM
SB 99
SB099_PreK_Ed_Funding_2017DEED_Report.pdf SEDC 1/31/2018 8:00:00 AM
SB 99