Legislature(2019 - 2020)GRUENBERG 120

03/14/2019 11:00 AM House FISHERIES

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11:09:09 AM Start
11:10:20 AM Presentation(s): Salmon Hatcheries, the Alaska Hatchery Research Program, and Being a Wise Consumer of Science
12:12:22 PM Adjourn
* first hearing in first committee of referral
+ teleconferenced
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+ Presentation: Salmon Hatcheries, the Alaska TELECONFERENCED
Hatchery Research Program, and Being a Wise
Consumer of Science
By Dept. of Fish & Game
                    ALASKA STATE LEGISLATURE                                                                                  
              HOUSE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON FISHERIES                                                                            
                         March 14, 2019                                                                                         
                           11:09 a.m.                                                                                           
MEMBERS PRESENT                                                                                                               
Representative Louise Stutes, Chair                                                                                             
Representative Bryce Edgmon                                                                                                     
Representative Chuck Kopp                                                                                                       
Representative Geran Tarr                                                                                                       
Representative Sarah Vance                                                                                                      
Representative Mark Neuman                                                                                                      
MEMBERS ABSENT                                                                                                                
Representative Jonathan Kreiss-Tomkins                                                                                          
OTHER LEGISLATORS PRESENT                                                                                                     
Representative Sara Hannan                                                                                                      
COMMITTEE CALENDAR                                                                                                            
PRESENTATION(S):  SALMON HATCHERIES~ THE ALASKA HATCHERY                                                                        
RESEARCH PROGRAM~ AND BEING A WISE CONSUMER OF SCIENCE                                                                          
     - HEARD                                                                                                                    
PREVIOUS COMMITTEE ACTION                                                                                                     
No previous action to record                                                                                                    
WITNESS REGISTER                                                                                                              
SAM RABUNG, Director                                                                                                            
Division of Commercial Fisheries                                                                                                
Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG)                                                                                       
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  Provided a PowerPoint presentation titled                                                                
"Salmon Fishery Enhancement in Alaska."                                                                                         
BILL TEMPLIN, Chief Salmon Fisheries Scientist                                                                                  
Division of Commercial Fisheries                                                                                                
Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG)                                                                                       
Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                               
POSITION STATEMENT:   Provided  a PowerPoint  presentation titled                                                             
"Enhancement Related Research."                                                                                                 
ACTION NARRATIVE                                                                                                              
11:09:09 AM                                                                                                                   
CHAIR  LOUISE  STUTES  called  the  House  Special  Committee  on                                                             
Fisheries meeting to order at  11:09 a.m.  Representatives Vance,                                                               
Kopp,  Neuman, Edgmon,  and Stutes  were present  at the  call to                                                               
order.    Representative  Tarr  arrived as  the  meeting  was  in                                                               
^PRESENTATION(S):     Salmon  Hatcheries,  the   Alaska  Hatchery                                                             
Research Program, and Being a Wise Consumer of Science                                                                        
     PRESENTATION(S):  Salmon Hatcheries, the Alaska Hatchery                                                               
      Research Program, and Being a Wise Consumer of Science                                                                
11:10:20 AM                                                                                                                   
CHAIR LOUISE  STUTES announced  that the  only order  of business                                                               
would  be  a  presentation  on   Salmon  Hatcheries,  The  Alaska                                                               
Hatchery Research Program,  and Being a Wise  Consumer of Science                                                               
provided by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADFG).                                                                      
CHAIR STUTES noted there is a  lot of concern and focus on salmon                                                               
hatcheries right  now on  the Board  of Fisheries,  including the                                                               
straying of hatchery fish, what  effects that might be having, as                                                               
well as  how to  be a good  consumer of the  science that  is out                                                               
there on the issue.   As such, she thought it  would be useful to                                                               
educate   the  committee   on  the   issue  with   a  series   of                                                               
presentations.   This  will be  the first  segment followed  by a                                                               
presentation    from   the    different   regional    aquaculture                                                               
associations.  Also,  there will be a trip to  the Douglas Island                                                               
Pink and Chum, Inc. (DIPAC), the local hatchery in Juneau.                                                                      
11:11:40 AM                                                                                                                   
SAM RABUNG,  Director, Division  of Commercial  Fisheries, Alaska                                                               
Department  of  Fish  and  Game  (ADFG),  provided  a  PowerPoint                                                               
presentation titled "Salmon Fishery Enhancement in Alaska."                                                                     
Addressing slides 2-4, he began  his presentation by asking,  Why                                                               
do we have a fishery enhancement  program in Alaska?"  He related                                                               
that the State of Alaska  assumed control of fisheries management                                                               
in  1960 and  instituted a  new  system of  escapement based  in-                                                               
season  management.   Only 21  million salmon  were harvested  in                                                               
1967, down from  a peak of about 126.5 million  in 1936.  Between                                                               
1972   and  1975   Alaska  experienced   the  lowest   number  of                                                               
commercially harvested salmon of the  century.  In 1971 the State                                                               
of  Alaska  initiated  its  current  salmon  fishery  enhancement                                                               
program  in  response  to  these  severely  depressed  commercial                                                               
salmon fisheries.                                                                                                               
MR. RABUNG explained  that Alaska took two  approaches to address                                                               
the  weak  fisheries.   First,  commercial  fisheries  management                                                               
changes  were   made  to  provide  for   adequate  escapement  of                                                               
spawners.    Second,  a  new   division  was  formed  called  the                                                               
Fisheries  Rehabilitation  Enhancement   and  Development  (FRED)                                                               
Division.   The  FRED  Division was  tasked  with developing  the                                                               
knowledge,  infrastructure,  and  support systems  necessary  for                                                               
rehabilitation  and  enhancement  of  Alaska's  salmon  fisheries                                                               
through  hatchery production  and other  means.   This integrated                                                               
approach to  recovering salmon included:   using escapement-based                                                               
in-season  management to  ensure  enough spawners  would make  it                                                               
back;  creating  the limited  entry  program  for the  commercial                                                               
fishery, the first in the  nation and which stabilized the number                                                               
of fishermen and the amount  of gear/fishing power; and beginning                                                               
the  program  of  fisheries  rehabilitation  and  enhancement  to                                                               
recover the  depleted runs.  In  1972, Article 8, Section  15, of                                                               
the state  constitution was  amended to  allow for  limited entry                                                               
and  for "the  efficient development  of aquaculture"  in Alaska.                                                               
The  1976  Magnuson-Stevens  Act restricted  foreign  fishing  to                                                               
outside  the  200-mile  limit,  which  no  doubt  contributed  to                                                               
improving Alaska's fisheries.                                                                                                   
11:14:25 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. RABUNG moved to slide 5  and reported that the private sector                                                               
was  allowed to  join the  effort in  1974 via  the Alaska  State                                                               
Legislature's passage  of the "Private Nonprofit  Salmon Hatchery                                                               
Act."    The legislature  wanted  the  state  to engage  in  this                                                               
program of fishery rehabilitation as well  as to set in place the                                                               
mechanism  for private  nonprofit (PNP)  aquaculture corporations                                                               
to  own  and operate  salmon  hatcheries  and contribute  to  the                                                               
common  property fishery.   Some  have  said the  state began  to                                                               
adopt a  user-pay philosophy at this  time.  Turning to  slide 6,                                                               
Mr. Rabung  related that  the purpose of  the PNP  salmon fishery                                                               
enhancement  program  is the  recovery  and  support of  Alaska's                                                               
salmon fisheries  and to  provide an  economic engine  to support                                                               
and grow  coastal communities.   This program is not  about fish,                                                               
he stated, but rather fisheries.                                                                                                
MR. RABUNG addressed slides 7-12  and explained there is guidance                                                               
in  the  state  constitution, Alaska  statute,  regulations,  and                                                               
policy.   He pointed out  that the FRED division  was established                                                               
under Alaska Statute (AS) 16.05.092.   The primary regulation for                                                               
private  nonprofit  salmon  hatcheries  is  in  the  chapter  for                                                               
commercial  fisheries   regulations,  5  AAC  40.005-990.     The                                                               
genetics policy,  promulgated in 1985,  is a primary  guidance of                                                               
the program,  and all the  other policies that were  developed to                                                               
guide the program have been adopted into regulation.                                                                            
MR. RABUNG turned  to slide 13 and said the  hatchery program, by                                                               
design,  is stakeholder  driven  and the  users  of the  resource                                                               
determine  what fishery  enhancement is  desirable in  their area                                                               
while ADF&G determines what is  appropriate within its mandate to                                                               
sustain natural  production.  The mechanism  for this cooperative                                                               
effort  is the  Regional  Aquaculture  Association (RAA)  working                                                               
with ADF&G  within the  Regional Planning  Team (RPT)  process to                                                               
develop a  regional salmon  plan.   He said the  map on  slide 14                                                               
shows the  different salmon fishery enhancement  planning regions                                                               
in Alaska.  Not all of  them have active programs.  Only southern                                                               
Southeast  Alaska,  northern  Southeast  Alaska,  Prince  William                                                               
Sound, Cook Inlet, and Kodiak have active programs.                                                                             
11:17:26 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. RABUNG  displayed slide 15  and pointed out that  the primary                                                               
responsibility  of  the  RPTs is  regional  comprehensive  salmon                                                               
planning.   The RPTs  are advisory to  the ADF&G  commissioner on                                                               
salmon  fisheries  enhancement  planning  and  permitting  within                                                               
their regions.   He  said he  likes to use  the analogy  that the                                                               
[fish and game] advisory committees  are advisory to the Board of                                                               
Fisheries and the RPTs are advisory to the commissioner.                                                                        
MR.  RABUNG moved  to slides  16-17 and  stated that  the RPT  is                                                               
comprised of  three voting members from  the regional aquaculture                                                               
association, three voting  members from ADF&G, and  the public is                                                               
invited  and encouraged  to  participate.   There  are often  ex-                                                               
officio non-voting seats  that represent other user  groups.  All                                                               
those  things come  together to  provide  recommendations to  the                                                               
commissioner.   The  primary duty  of an  RPT, he  reiterated, is                                                               
developing a  regional comprehensive salmon  plan.  That  plan is                                                               
supposed  to  document  historic   harvests  and  production  and                                                               
document the  desired harvest goals  by species, area,  and time,                                                               
as  well as  to  identify any  project  opportunities to  fulfill                                                               
these plan goals  and objects.  Not every region  chooses to have                                                               
a  salmon fishery  enhancement  program and  that  is by  design.                                                               
Every region gets to make its  own decisions on what is desirable                                                               
within its area.                                                                                                                
MR. RABUNG explained that the  graph on slide 18 shows production                                                               
in  the North  Pacific of  all  nations -  Canada, Japan,  Korea,                                                               
Russia,  and the  U.S. -  for all  salmon species  for the  years                                                               
1952-2017.   The  release numbers  have been  stable since  about                                                               
1988 at about 5 billion  juvenile salmon released annually.  Chum                                                               
salmon  is  by far  the  predominant  species, followed  by  pink                                                               
salmon.  Responding to Chair  Stutes, he said Cherry salmon occur                                                               
in Asia and is similar to a Chum salmon.                                                                                        
11:19:54 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. RABUNG stated that the maps  on slide 19 show the location of                                                               
the active hatcheries  in Alaska.  They are  primarily located in                                                               
Southeast Alaska and  Prince William Sound area, with  two in the                                                               
Kodiak area  and a  few in the  Cook Inlet area.   He  noted that                                                               
slide 20  is a graph  of Alaska's hatchery production  from 1973-                                                               
2018.   The bars on the  graph represent all species  stacked and                                                               
all regions combined.  Prince  William Sound releases the most in                                                               
terms of  numbers, primarily pink  salmon, followed  by Southeast                                                               
Alaska  which releases  primarily chum  salmon.   Since 1995  the                                                               
annual smolt releases have ranged  from about 1.4 to 1.8 billion,                                                               
with the highest number released in 2018 at over 1.8 billion.                                                                   
MR. RABUNG discussed  the graph on slide 21  depicting the Alaska                                                               
commercial wild  stock salmon harvest  from 1900-2018  along with                                                               
the graph on slide 22 showing  the hatchery harvest on top of the                                                               
wild  stock harvest.   The  hatchery program  didn't begin  until                                                               
1974, he  noted, so all  production prior  to that time  was wild                                                               
stock.  This  graph, he pointed out,  demonstrates that increased                                                               
wild  salmon harvest  levels occurred  alongside Alaska's  robust                                                               
fishery enhancement  program that  began in  the mid-1970s.   The                                                               
enhancement  program  is  designed   to  supplement  the  harvest                                                               
without  having a  negative  effect on  wild  productivity.   Mr.                                                               
Rabung  concluded  with  slide   23,  which  stated:    "Alaska's                                                               
contemporary  salmon  fishery  enhancement program  has  operated                                                               
since  the mid-1970s,  and  through 2018  has  provided over  1.8                                                               
billion  salmon  to the  fisheries  of  the State,  resulting  in                                                               
substantial economic  value without any obvious  negative effects                                                               
on natural salmon production."                                                                                                  
11:23:00 AM                                                                                                                   
BILL  TEMPLIN,  Chief  Salmon Fisheries  Scientist,  Division  of                                                               
Commercial  Fisheries,   Alaska  Department  of  Fish   and  Game                                                               
(ADF&G), provided  a PowerPoint presentation  titled  Enhancement                                                               
Related Research.    He noted there might be  some concern around                                                               
hatcheries, so  he will  address what ADF&G  is doing  about that                                                               
concern in  terms of  research and how  ADF&G plans  to interpret                                                               
the information it receives from the research.                                                                                  
MR. TEMPLIN displayed slide 2  and said Alaska's constitution was                                                               
revised with a  provision that required the  state's resources be                                                               
utilized,  developed,  and  maintained  on  the  sustained  yield                                                               
principle,  subject  to preferences  among  uses.   He  said  the                                                               
sustained  yield  principle  was intended  to  provide  continued                                                               
production from the state's natural resources.                                                                                  
MR. TEMPLIN  turned to slide  3 and related that  ADF&G's mission                                                               
statement requires the department  to protect, maintain, improve,                                                               
and manage  the use  and development of  the state's  fish, game,                                                               
and  aquatic  plant  resources.    These  four  requirements,  he                                                               
pointed out,  are a balancing  act for managing  these resources.                                                               
He further  related that  the mission  statement says  that these                                                               
resources are to  be managed in the best interest  of the economy                                                               
and the  well-being of the  people of the state,  consistent with                                                               
the  sustained  yield principle.    He  read  a quote  from  R.A.                                                               
Cooley, which states, "It must  be recognized that the welfare of                                                               
people and not  fish is the reason for a  management program, and                                                               
that if  maximum sustained  yield has  any validity,  it is  as a                                                               
means to important human ends rather than as an end itself."                                                                    
11:26:30 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN  moved to  slide 4 and  reviewed the  United Nations'                                                               
definition  of sustainable  development,  which is:  "Sustainable                                                               
development is  development that meets  the needs of  the present                                                               
without compromising  the ability  of future generations  to meet                                                               
their own  needs."   He said "fishery"  could be  substituted for                                                               
"development"  in that  definition  and it  would  then become  a                                                               
definition for sustainable fisheries.                                                                                           
MR.  TEMPLIN showed  slide  6 and  advised  that policy  includes                                                               
statements about  how to do  sustainable management.   Addressing                                                               
the  policy for  the management  of sustainable  salmon fisheries                                                               
under 5  AAC 39.222(c),  he noted  that paragraph  (5) recognizes                                                               
there  is uncertainty  in  salmon  stocks, fisheries,  artificial                                                               
propagation, and  habitat; so, in  the face of  that uncertainty,                                                               
management must  be conservative.   This means that  the approach                                                               
must  be precautionary  - thinking  ahead  and understanding  the                                                               
potential risks even when not having all the information.                                                                       
MR. TEMPLIN  discussed the  working definitions  of precautionary                                                               
principle and  precautionary approach  outlined on  slide 6.   He                                                               
defined "precautionary  principle" as  the rule or  standard that                                                               
is   applied  "when   human  activities   may  lead   to  morally                                                               
unacceptable   harm   that   is  scientifically   plausible   but                                                               
uncertain,  actions shall  be  taken to  avoid  or diminish  that                                                               
harm."    He defined "precautionary approach" as  the method that                                                               
should be applied:  "A set of agreed  cost-effective measures and                                                               
actions,  including  future  courses  of  action,  which  ensures                                                               
prudent foresight, reduces  or avoids risk to  the resources, the                                                               
environment,  and  the people,  to  the  extent possible,  taking                                                               
explicitly into account existing  uncertainties and the potential                                                               
consequences of being wrong."                                                                                                   
11:28:57 AM                                                                                                                   
MR.  TEMPLIN  turned  to  slides  7-8  and  continued  discussing                                                               
precautionary approach as defined  in SSFP 5 AAC 39.222(c)(5)(A),                                                               
which   states:   "a   precautionary  approach,   involving   the                                                               
application  of prudent  foresight  that takes  into account  the                                                               
uncertainties  in salmon  fisheries and  habitat management,  the                                                               
biological, social,  cultural, and  economic risks, and  the need                                                               
to take  action with incomplete  knowledge, should be  applied to                                                               
the  regulation and  control of  harvest and  other human-induced                                                               
sources of salmon mortality;  a precautionary approach requires".                                                               
He  pointed out  that  action  is often  needed  in  the face  of                                                               
incomplete  knowledge, and  that currently  this is  where things                                                               
are at with enhancement related  activities.  [Managers] must act                                                               
in a  precautionary manner, they  don't have all  the information                                                               
but are  working to gain it,  and [managers] need to  think about                                                               
the risks - biological, social, cultural, and economic.                                                                         
MR. TEMPLIN displayed slide 9 and  asked, "Why are we doing this?                                                               
Why is  it an issue  that potentially  hatchery fish stray?"   He                                                               
noted that  there are a  variety of  opinions in answer  to these                                                               
questions.   These questions are  faced because Alaska  has taken                                                               
on  hatcheries and  salmon  enhancement as  a  means to  economic                                                               
benefit.  But  in the face of that production,  there is also the                                                               
requirement to sustain the natural production of salmon.                                                                        
MR. TEMPLIN  explained that straying  and homing are part  of the                                                               
natural life cycle of Pacific salmon.   He said some species home                                                               
more  than  others  and  that the  benefits  of  homing  include:                                                               
allowing  the salmon  to develop  local  adaptations; leading  to                                                               
greater differences between populations;  and leading to improved                                                               
survivals of the  offspring when they come back  because they fit                                                               
the environment better and can then  be more production.  But, he                                                               
continued, there are also benefits  from straying, which include:                                                               
accessing new  habitats, like  Glacier Bay;  increasing diversity                                                               
within  populations,  because  having  some  interaction  between                                                               
separate  groups maintains  a large  amount of  genetic diversity                                                               
within  the  population;  and  buffering  temporal  variation  in                                                               
habitat  quality,   such  as  a   flood  event  wiping   out  one                                                               
population.   Therefore, homing  and straying  act in  balance in                                                               
different salmon populations and species.                                                                                       
11:32:20 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN  provided examples of  homing and straying.   Showing                                                               
slide  11  he stated  that  sockeye  salmon have  strong  homing.                                                               
Sockeye have long  freshwater residency, so they need to  be in a                                                               
lake system  that is good for  their offspring to grow  in.  That                                                               
leads to higher  variability in habitat because in  a lake system                                                               
the salmon can spawn along the  shore, the stream that comes into                                                               
the lake, or  a stream that goes  out of the lake.   Lake systems                                                               
tend  to  have  higher  stability  in  habitat,  which  leads  to                                                               
variable-year life cycles such that  sockeye could return at ages                                                               
anywhere between  two and five years  old.  Mr. Templin  moved to                                                               
slide 12 to discuss Pink salmon  as a counter example, which have                                                               
a  short freshwater  residency.   As  soon as  emerging from  the                                                               
gravel, pink  salmon tend to go  right out to the  ocean, whereas                                                               
sockeye  can stay  from zero  to three  years in  a lake  system.                                                               
Streams  have  lower variability  in  habitat  as well  as  lower                                                               
stability in habitat.  Because of  this, pink salmon tend to have                                                               
a one-year  life cycle, meaning  two years  - from the  time that                                                               
they emerge  they will return a  year later.  In  some ways, this                                                               
can  lead to  lower selection  for  homing, so  pink salmon  will                                                               
stray more as a species than sockeye salmon.                                                                                    
11:34:15 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN  turned to  slide 13  and said  stray rates  can mean                                                               
different things to  different people.  He  explained that "stray                                                               
in rate  or  "recipient stray rate" is the proportion  of fish in                                                               
a spawning  location that were  not born  in that location.   The                                                               
"stray-out rate" or  the "donor stray rate" is  the proportion of                                                               
fish  from  a spawning  location  that  did  not return  to  that                                                               
location, they  went somewhere else.   Therefore,  thinking about                                                               
straying depends on the perspective  of whether it is straying in                                                               
or  straying  out.    He  advised   that  for  the  rest  of  his                                                               
presentation he will be talking  about the stray in rate, because                                                               
that is what  many people are concerned about -  hatchery fish in                                                               
wild fish spawning streams.                                                                                                     
MR. TEMPLIN displayed  slide 15 and said  Special Publication No.                                                             
18-12 is ADF&G's  review of Alaska's precautionary  approach.  He                                                             
said there are  structures in place - policies,  plans, permits -                                                               
that  recognize the  risks  and  try to  control  those risks  so                                                               
Alaskans can  receive the  benefit.  As  part of  these policies,                                                               
there  are  directions  for   management,  for  maintaining  fish                                                               
health, and for  maintaining genetics.  This  report provides two                                                               
case studies, he noted, one  for Southeast Alaska king salmon and                                                               
the other for Prince William Sound pink salmon.                                                                                 
11:36:13 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN  showed slide  16 and  discussed the  policy elements                                                               
that  are  dealt  with  in the  management  policy,  fish  health                                                               
policy, and  genetics policy.   For management it  is established                                                               
that  wild stock  conservation is  the priority;  that management                                                               
must be for sustained yield;  and that management recognizes that                                                               
hatchery  and wild  fish stocks  do interact  and that  wild fish                                                               
stocks interact  and there must  be management accordingly.   For                                                               
fish  health there  is a  recognition  that there  can be  health                                                               
concerns with  bringing fish  into a  hatchery.   So, there  is a                                                               
robust pathology  lab and  program and  there are  inspections to                                                               
ensure that  the release of  hatchery fish doesn't add  a disease                                                               
load  to the  wild populations.   The  genetics policy  describes                                                               
things like  using appropriate  local stocks.   Local  stocks are                                                               
used so  that if  there is  an interaction,  if hatchery  fish do                                                               
stray out  of the hatchery  and into  the local rivers  that they                                                               
originated from that  river and so more likely  to be genetically                                                               
benign.  Also, significant or  unique wild stocks were identified                                                               
as  well  as wild  stock  sanctuaries.   Additionally,  there  is                                                               
assessment of hatchery and wild stock interaction and impacts.                                                                  
11:38:09 AM                                                                                                                   
MR.  TEMPLIN turned  to slide  17 and  stated there  needs to  be                                                               
assessment  of hatchery  and wild  salmon  stock interaction  and                                                               
impacts.   Studies done in  the past  decade or so  document that                                                               
there are hatchery  fish in wild systems.  He  explained that the                                                               
otolith in hatchery fish is marked  with a banding pattern, so by                                                               
collecting  carcasses in  a stream  the otoliths  can be  read to                                                               
determine  whether the  fish originated  from a  hatchery or  the                                                               
wild.  Based  on those observations, he continued,  ADF&G has two                                                               
ongoing studies.   One study is  in the Lower Cook  Inlet looking                                                               
at the contributions of hatchery  pink salmon to harvests as well                                                               
as the  escapement.  The other  is a much larger  long-term study                                                               
called the Alaska Hatchery Research  Program, which is looking at                                                               
pink and chum  salmon in the Prince William Sound  region and the                                                               
Southeast  Alaska region.   This  study has  shrunk down  all the                                                               
potential research  that could  be done  to three  questions that                                                               
have a reasonable chance of being answered.                                                                                     
MR. TEMPLIN  moved to slide 18  and elaborated on the  Lower Cook                                                               
Inlet pink salmon  study.  He said this study  is being conducted                                                               
in Homer by  biologists Ted Otis and Glenn Hollowell.   The Tutka                                                               
Bay Lagoon  Hatchery and  the Port  Graham Hatchery  had produced                                                               
pink salmon a  decade ago but were shut down;  they have now been                                                               
restarted.  The purpose of this  study is to gather baseline data                                                               
on the  hatchery-wild composition of harvests  and escapements in                                                               
Lower Cook Inlet now that  these two recently reopened hatcheries                                                               
are releasing marked fry.                                                                                                       
11:40:15 AM                                                                                                                   
MR.  TEMPLIN spoke  to  slide  19.   He  said  the study's  first                                                               
objective  is  to  estimate   hatchery-wild  composition  of  the                                                               
commercial harvest  to evaluate any  benefits to fishermen.   The                                                               
second objective  is to monitory  escapement of hatchery  fish to                                                               
pink salmon  streams and to  see if  in the presence  of hatchery                                                               
fish and harvest directed on  hatchery fish that escapement goals                                                               
within  those streams  could be  met.   Addressing  slide 20,  he                                                               
stated that  the cost recovery  harvest in Tutka Lagoon  and Port                                                               
Graham is  largely composed of  pink salmon generated  from those                                                               
hatcheries.   As well,  good portions of  pink salmon  from these                                                               
hatcheries are contributing to the common property harvest.                                                                     
MR.  TEMPLIN moved  to slide  21  and noted  that escapement  has                                                               
generated a lot of public  interest because local hatchery strays                                                               
are  being found  in Lower  Cook Inlet  streams, along  with some                                                               
Prince  William Sound  pink salmon,  which wasn't  expected.   As                                                               
shown on the  map, he explained, opportunistic  samples have been                                                               
collected on  10 streams over  four or  five years.   Numbers are                                                               
depicted  for each  stream -  the  top number  being the  average                                                               
proportion in those samples of  Prince William Sound fish and the                                                               
lower number  being the  Lower Cook  Inlet origin  hatchery fish.                                                               
He  drew attention  to the  numbers for  Barbara Creek  and noted                                                               
that on average  of the samples collected, 3.5  percent were from                                                               
Lower Cook Inlet  hatcheries and [27.4] percent  were from Prince                                                               
William Sound.                                                                                                                  
11:43:26 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN addressed  the six conclusions presented  on slide 22                                                               
for the  Lower Cook Inlet pink  salmon study.  He  explained that                                                               
the biologists  are collecting information but  that a long-term,                                                               
well-designed  study  needs to  happen  to  start addressing  the                                                               
observations that  are being  seen.   Therefore, he  advised, the                                                               
conclusions must  be relatively weakened because  the samples are                                                               
not from a designed study,  they are opportunistic.  That doesn't                                                               
mean that  these observations are  unimportant.   One conclusion,                                                               
he  pointed out,  was that  the pink  salmon index  streams still                                                               
meet their escapement goals just  about as often as they normally                                                               
would -  about 80 percent of  them over the five  years have been                                                               
met  and that  is  about what  the department  average  is.   So,                                                               
escapement is  being met even in  the presence of fishing  on the                                                               
hatchery  fish.   Another conclusion  was that  Lower Cook  Inlet                                                               
hatchery-produced pink  salmon present in the  stream samples can                                                               
range from 0  percent to 87 percent.  Mr.  Templin qualified that                                                               
while  87 percent  seems large,  the  87 percent  was a  one-time                                                               
occurrence in  one location.   An additional conclusion  was that                                                               
interpretation of current data is  limited given the few years of                                                               
sampling and  that there  is not  a designed study  here.   It is                                                               
important  for ADF&G  to be  able  to use  information from  this                                                               
project and  to push ahead  and develop  a program to  answer how                                                               
much of  the actual escapement  in Lower  Cook Inlet or  in these                                                               
streams is from  hatchery fish.  These numbers cannot  be used to                                                               
generate that, it can only be said  that on a given visit, of the                                                               
carcasses that were sampled, X amount were from a hatchery.                                                                     
11:45:40 AM                                                                                                                   
MR.  TEMPLIN displayed  slide  23 and  elaborated  on the  Alaska                                                               
Hatchery Research  Program (AHRP).   He explained that AHRP  is a                                                               
collaborative   research  program   between  ADF&G   and  private                                                               
nonprofit  hatchery operators,  processors,  and other  entities.                                                               
This program was  designed to come up with  some information that                                                               
will  help interpret  observations  of [hatchery]  stray fish  in                                                               
wild streams.  Skipping to slide  25 he related that these large-                                                               
scale  salmon  releases  have  raised  concerns  for  wild  stock                                                               
impacts.  Hatchery  fish have been observed  in wild escapements,                                                               
it's a  concern, and  the question is  what to do  about it.   He                                                               
said  a  question asked  is:    "Do hatchery  fish  detrimentally                                                               
affect   productivity  and   sustainability   of  wild   stocks?"                                                               
Generally,  it  is data  limited,  he  continued.   Studies  have                                                               
demonstrated that  there are hatchery  fish and  sometimes larger                                                               
than expected  or from a location  that is not expected  in these                                                               
escapements.  He pointed out  that Alaska's policy mandates there                                                               
be  sustainable  productivity  from   wild  stocks  and  so  this                                                               
question must be  answered.  It is not a  new concern, he stated.                                                               
Even when  the hatchery  program was  being developed,  Alaska at                                                               
about  the  same time  was  developing  the very  first  genetics                                                               
policy in the U.S. and this policy was finalized in 1985.                                                                       
11:47:50 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN  moved to slide  26 and continued elaborating  on the                                                               
Alaska  Hatchery   Research  Program.    He   explained  that  in                                                               
recognition  of the  need to  examine  the extent  and impact  of                                                               
hatchery  strays  on wild  stock  fitness  and productivity,  PNP                                                               
hatchery operators  proposed that ADF&G organize  a science panel                                                               
of experts to  design and implement a  long-term research project                                                               
to inform future resource management  decisions with funding from                                                               
a  partnership  of  the  state, operators,  and  industry.    The                                                               
science panel developed fundamental  questions aimed at examining                                                               
the extent  and potential  impacts of  hatchery fish  straying on                                                               
fitness  of wild  stocks  focusing  on pink  and  chum salmon  in                                                               
Prince William  Sound and chum  salmon in Southeast Alaska.   The                                                               
charge to  the science  panel was  to identify  priority research                                                               
questions  and develop  a framework  for research  that could  be                                                               
used to  address these questions.   The panel  was made up  of 13                                                               
members from  ADF&G, the National  Marine Fisheries  Service, the                                                               
University of Alaska, and aquaculture associations.                                                                             
MR. TEMPLIN turned  to slide 28 and outlined  the three questions                                                               
that  were generated  by the  science panel,  the first  question                                                               
being, "What is  the genetic stock structure of pink  and chum in                                                               
Prince  William Sound  and Southeast  Alaska?"   He said  this is                                                               
important  to understand  because it  provides the  background of                                                               
genetic structure that  the results could be  measured against to                                                               
be able  to understand the results  in context.  He  related that                                                               
the panel's second  question was, "What is the  extent and annual                                                               
variability of straying?"  He said  the intent here was to design                                                               
a program  to get  answers in  a structured  way that  would then                                                               
help in  understanding how much  straying is happening  from pink                                                               
salmon  hatcheries  into the  streams  of  Prince William  Sound.                                                               
Continuing, he  said the third  question generated was,  "What is                                                               
the impact of these hatchery fish  on the fitness of natural pink                                                               
and chum  salmon?"  He  noted that  "fitness" here is  defined as                                                               
productivity because  productivity of the natural  system is what                                                               
is being looked for here.                                                                                                       
11:50:13 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN  explained that due  to time constraints he  will not                                                               
elaborate  on  the   first  question.    Showing   slide  29,  he                                                               
elaborated on the second question  about the extent and amount of                                                               
straying.  He explained the  graphic depicts straying results for                                                               
pink and chum  in Prince William Sound (PWS) for  the years 2013-                                                               
2015.    He  explained  that each  box  represents  district-wide                                                               
estimates,  not steam  estimates,  and that  each  box has  three                                                               
bars, one  bar for each  year - 2013, 2014,  and 2015.   The blue                                                               
portion of each bar depicts  the relative proportion of fish from                                                               
natural production and  the red portion is the  proportion of the                                                               
escapement that came  from hatchery strays.  He  pointed out that                                                               
there are  patterns in pink  salmon straying, with  more straying                                                               
in the  southwest corner  of PWS  and less  straying in  the east                                                               
side  of PWS.   A  similar pattern  is also  seen in  chum salmon                                                               
straying, with the  most straying of chum in  the Montague Island                                                               
area.  There is  a large release of chum salmon  in that area, he                                                               
said, and this  area was specifically chosen  because the streams                                                               
in  that area  have not  been  productive for  chum salmon  since                                                               
changes from the  [1964] earthquake.  For both  species the stray                                                               
proportion of the  escapement ranges from almost  zero percent to                                                               
as high as 85  percent [for chum] and 90 percent  [for pink].  Of                                                               
the  total  escapement  for  pink salmon  overall  for  PWS,  4.4                                                               
percent, 14.8 percent, and 9.5  percent were estimated to be from                                                               
hatchery   origin   for  the   years   2013,   2014,  and   2015,                                                               
respectively.   Of the total  escapement for chum  salmon overall                                                               
for  PWS,  2.8  percent,  3.2   percent,  and  3.1  percent  were                                                               
estimated to  be from hatchery  origin for the years  2013, 2014,                                                               
and 2015, respectively.                                                                                                         
11:52:41 AM                                                                                                                   
MR.  TEMPLIN  brought  attention  to  the  graphic  on  slide  30                                                               
depicting  the  straying results  for  chum  salmon in  Southeast                                                               
Alaska for the years 2013-2015.   He explained that three regions                                                               
in Southeast  Alaska were estimated.   The district-wide hatchery                                                               
proportion  in the  escapement  for a  district  ranged from  1.5                                                               
percent to  as high as  [12.7] percent, but overall  in Southeast                                                               
Alaska  the  total proportion  of  hatchery  fish adding  to  the                                                               
escapement of  wild fish  ranged from 5.5  percent to  9 percent.                                                               
So, he  continued, the distribution,  the extent, and  the amount                                                               
of straying is known for these three years in these two regions.                                                                
MR.  TEMPLIN spoke  to the  tables on  slide 31,  explaining that                                                               
this  information  can  now,  for  the first  time,  be  used  to                                                               
estimate the actual natural run  and actual hatchery run.  Before                                                               
this, he noted,  it was very difficult or  impossible to estimate                                                               
how  many  hatchery  fish  were  in  wild  escapement.    Drawing                                                               
attention to  the lower box on  slide 31, he explained  that from                                                               
this total  amount, the harvest rate  can be estimated.   He said                                                               
that in 2013, "We harvested, or  accounted for, 99 percent of the                                                               
hatchery fish  ... and managers were  able to do that  while only                                                               
having  a 53  percent  harvest  rate on  the  ... natural  stocks                                                               
within Prince  William Sound."   An interesting result  from this                                                               
study,  he continued,  is that  "our  current management  systems                                                               
allow  us to  direct our  harvest on  hatchery stocks,  which are                                                               
intended  to  be for  harvest,  and  at  the same  time  maintain                                                               
reasonable harvest rates on the natural stocks."                                                                                
11:54:51 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN displayed  slide 32 and elaborated  on question three                                                               
regarding fitness and whether productivity  of the natural system                                                               
is being  hurt.  He explained  that paternity is being  looked at                                                               
to  answer this  question.   Offspring are  being traced  back to                                                               
their  parents and  this is  being done  in the  wild, which  has                                                               
never been  done before.  The  parents are collected in  one year                                                               
and then two  years later the fish sampled from  that same stream                                                               
should be the offspring of  the parents sampled earlier, and then                                                               
genetics can be  used to do a paternity test  and match offspring                                                               
back to their  parents.  Otoliths were pulled  from those parents                                                               
to determine  whether a parent came  from a hatchery or  from the                                                               
natural.  Using  the otoliths and the  offspring, researchers can                                                               
go back  to see what is  the relative productivity of  a hatchery                                                               
fish  in the  wild and  what is  the relative  productivity of  a                                                               
natural  fish in  the  wild  and whether  they  are  the same  or                                                               
different.  Mr. Templin further  explained that five streams were                                                               
sampled for  seven years,  2013-2019.  He  pointed out  that pink                                                               
salmon are odd and even, so  there are two separate lines.  There                                                               
are four observations for the odd  years of 2013, 2015, 2017, and                                                               
2019, and [three observations] for  the even years of 2014, 2016,                                                               
and 2014.  Researchers will be  looking not just at children, but                                                               
hopefully also  the grandchildren of the  original parents, which                                                               
will help in understanding how  much is potentially environmental                                                               
and how much is  genetic.  He noted that this  is a large project                                                               
with an expected 150,000 fish to analyze.                                                                                       
11:57:11 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN turned  to slide 33 and stated  that researchers have                                                               
results from  one year  from one  stream, meaning  one generation                                                               
from one stream.  He said  having these results proves that doing                                                               
pedigrees in nature  is possible.  He reported that  out of 1,000                                                               
fish sampled in  the even-year lineage, researchers  were able to                                                               
trace 451  offspring back to  184 parents, which is  an offspring                                                               
assignment rate of  11 percent.  The relative  return per spawner                                                               
(RRS)  for female  hatchery fish  productivity  compared to  wild                                                               
fish productivity, is about [0.47] for  this one year in this one                                                               
location,  so 47  percent hatchery  fish.   So, he  explained, in                                                               
this sample,  hatchery fish are  about half as effective  as wild                                                               
fish in the wild.   He cautioned that is only  one data point and                                                               
that there are five streams to  analyze and there are going to be                                                               
multiple generations in  each of those streams,  and therefore it                                                               
doesn't settle the question yet because  there are still a lot of                                                               
data points  to look at.   For male hatchery fish,  he continued,                                                               
the RRS is 87 percent,  which is not statistically different than                                                               
equal.   Mr. Templin reported  that for the odd-year  lineage, 48                                                               
offspring were traced  back to 20 parents, which is  a very small                                                               
sample  size.   Only  2.5  percent of  the  individuals could  be                                                               
traced back to a parent.   He stated that under-representation of                                                               
offspring  assigned to  hatchery-origin parents  is a  problem in                                                               
the studies of both lineages.                                                                                                   
11:59:10 AM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN moved  to slide 34 and reviewed  the conclusions from                                                               
this study in Hogan Bay:   Hatchery-origin fish did spawn and did                                                               
produce adult offspring; Hatchery-origin  fish spawned with wild-                                                               
origin  fish and  other hatchery-origin  fish, and  those matings                                                               
produced adult  natural-origin fish; On  average, hatchery-origin                                                               
fish produced  fewer adult offspring  that returned to  Hogan Bay                                                               
and were  sampled than  their natural-origin  conspecifics; There                                                               
are  potentially important  differences  in  relative return  per                                                               
spawner  between  male  and  female  hatchery-origin  fish.    He                                                               
stressed that this  is what is known  now and that a  lot of work                                                               
is yet to be done.                                                                                                              
MR. TEMPLIN addressed how ADF&G  interprets the information after                                                               
it is  gathered.  Turning  to slide  36, he advised  that certain                                                               
questions  won't  be answered  by  the  Alaska Hatchery  Research                                                               
Program (AHRP).   He said these questions include:   What are the                                                               
competition and predation effects of  hatchery fish?  Do hatchery                                                               
fish  reduce the  genetic  resilience of  wild  populations?   If                                                               
changes in  productivity are observed,  what mechanisms  could be                                                               
driving  these differences?   How  will  findings affect  policy?                                                               
[How do these hatchery fish  in wild systems affect assessment of                                                               
MR. TEMPLIN showed  slide 37 and advised that  ADF&G is assessing                                                               
the risk.   He said information  is currently had on  wild system                                                               
productivity and  hatchery proportions, and information  is being                                                               
collected  on genetic  background  and  relative productivity  of                                                               
hatchery and wild.   Once the study is completed  and the results                                                               
are  had, it  will  be time  to interpret  those  results and  to                                                               
understand the implications for management.                                                                                     
12:02:30 PM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN turned  to a set of graphs on  slide 38 and discussed                                                               
a  study  done on  the  relative  return  per spawner  (RRS)  for                                                               
steelhead on  the Hood  River.   He said the  orange dots  on the                                                               
graphs  represent  a  hatchery   female,  the  blue  triangles  a                                                               
hatchery male, and  the [solid] black line represents  1.0, so if                                                               
the dots or triangles are on  the solid line, then the [hatchery]                                                               
fish were  equally productive  as wild  steelhead.   He explained                                                               
the graphs show that [in 1995]  the hatchery fish were only about                                                               
80  percent as  effective as  the wild  steelhead, [in  1996] the                                                               
hatchery fish were equally productive  as the wild fish, but that                                                               
lots  of variation  occurred [during  the years  1997-2000].   He                                                               
therefore pointed out  that for Alaska's Hogan Bay  there is only                                                               
the one  piece of information,  and with  a couple more  years of                                                               
information a broader picture of what the RRS means will be had.                                                                
MR. TEMPLIN  spoke to  the mechanisms outlined  on slide  39 that                                                               
drive relative productivity.   He pointed out  that these effects                                                               
can last  one generation on  one side or  they can last  for many                                                               
generations.  Thought  must be given, he advised, as  to what are                                                               
the  potential sources  of potential  risk  to wild  populations.                                                               
Displaying slide  40, he  discussed the  graphic of  a conceptual                                                               
model for assessing  risk, explaining that the  X axis represents                                                               
from low to  high the probability of something  happening and the                                                               
Y axis  represents from  low to  high the  severity of  an event.                                                               
Moving  to  slide 41,  he  explained  that  if the  reduction  of                                                               
productivity is about 50 percent, it  is in the medium risk range                                                               
no  matter the  severity.   He  said  this is  one  way to  start                                                               
getting an idea and forming  the conversation about the risk that                                                               
hatchery fish might pose.                                                                                                       
12:04:36 PM                                                                                                                   
MR.  TEMPLIN  drew attention  to  slide  42  and stated,  "It  is                                                               
important for us  to be wise consumers of the  science."  Turning                                                               
to slide  43 he  discussed scientific  method, which  starts with                                                               
making  observations,  then  thinking of  interesting  questions,                                                               
then formulating  hypotheses, and so  on.  The  principles behind                                                               
the  scientific   method  are   to  make   careful  observations;                                                               
formulate and test  hypotheses and those hypotheses  must be able                                                               
to be proven  false; refine the hypotheses;  and remain skeptical                                                               
while  going through  the  process to  ensure  not being  fooled.                                                               
From this process, he explained,  theories are then developed and                                                               
there is a return to making observations.                                                                                       
MR.  TEMPLIN  reviewed  the  example   of  scientific  method  in                                                               
practice  outlined  on slide  44.    He  said  the example  is  a                                                               
critical-period hypothesis, which is a  theory that is not proven                                                               
but it  is following the  scientific process.   Observations from                                                               
ocean surveys  and looking at salmon  returns indicated something                                                               
was  happening in  the marine  environment.   Researchers started                                                               
asking  interesting questions:    When does  that  happen?   When                                                               
juveniles first  enter the marine  environment or after  they are                                                               
coming back?  Hypotheses were  formulated and then the process is                                                               
to test  the hypothesis, gather  data, refine the  hypothesis and                                                               
go around  and around in a  cycle.  Mr. Templin  pointed out that                                                               
the debate in this cycle elevates  the science and is part of the                                                               
scientific method, and  this is done before  moving to developing                                                               
grand  theories.   He  said the  ramifications  of an  incomplete                                                               
scientific  process are  not always  negative,  but sometimes  it                                                               
places on the reader the  burden to understand the limitations of                                                               
what  the research  is telling  the  reader.   He explained  that                                                               
science is stuck  in the cycle until some sort  of resolution can                                                               
be made and then at that point the science can move forward.                                                                    
12:06:50 PM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN  moved to slide  45 and  related that a  recent paper                                                               
came out describing  pink salmon effects on orca  in Puget Sound.                                                               
Researchers started with observations  that the southern resident                                                               
killer whale population  was declining in Puget  Sound, there was                                                               
a two-year pattern  [in mortality] for a portion of  that, and it                                                               
was noted that  pink salmon have a two-year life  cycle.  So, the                                                               
question was asked, Are pink  salmon responsible for this pattern                                                               
[in mortality]?  Two hypotheses were  presented, the  first being                                                               
that odd-year pink salmon interfere  and hurt the [orcas' ability                                                               
to  feed on  co-migrating  Chinook]; and  the  second being  that                                                               
because  there aren't  many even-year  pink salmon  it helps  the                                                               
orca  somehow.   The problem  with both  of those  hypotheses, he                                                               
continued, is  that neither one  is falsifiable at this  point in                                                               
time.  Also, he advised,  the second hypothesis is very difficult                                                               
to distinguish as it is hard to prove that there is no effect.                                                                  
MR.  TEMPLIN displayed  slide 46  and noted  that the  authors of                                                               
this paper  recognized that  and wrote:   "We recognize  the need                                                               
for  additional analyses  and rationale  to explain  this pattern                                                               
but we  wish to facilitate  rapid communications of  these unique                                                               
findings  because  a  greater  understanding  of  SRKW  [southern                                                               
resident  killer whale]  demography enhances  the likelihood  for                                                               
advancing their recovery."  However,  he pointed out, that wasn't                                                               
the sentence that most people read when reading this paper.                                                                     
12:08:20 PM                                                                                                                   
MR. TEMPLIN  moved to slide  47 and  continued.  He  related that                                                               
what was instead  picked up by the news from  this paper was that                                                               
pink salmon had  been found to be the new  reason for the decline                                                               
of killer whales.  He stressed  this is bad because "we've jumped                                                               
right  from the  scientific method,  skipped all  that bit  about                                                               
refining  the   hypotheses,  collecting  information,   and  gone                                                               
straight to publication."  Showing  slide 48, he pointed out that                                                               
when a word  search is done on this paper  about whales, the term                                                               
whale or SRKW comes up multiple  times in the various sections of                                                               
the paper.  But when a word  search is done for pink, chinook, or                                                               
salmon, those terms are absent  in the introduction, methods, and                                                               
results sections  of the paper,  and salmon is in  the discussion                                                               
section  of the  paper.    So, Mr.  Templin  advised, this  paper                                                               
presents hypotheses but does nothing  to advance that and then it                                                               
was picked up by the news.                                                                                                      
MR. TEMPLIN  turned to slide  49 and concluded  his presentation.                                                               
He  said  the responsibility  for  scientists  is to  communicate                                                               
research  clearly  and  effectively.     The  responsibility  for                                                               
readers is to  evaluate the strength of the research  paper or of                                                               
the newspaper  article.   Mr. Templin pointed  out that  the peer                                                               
review  process  is   not  perfect.    He  said   the  review  of                                                               
manuscripts is  voluntary on  scientists, reviewers  evaluate for                                                               
science but  not for  the "splash"  factor; publication  does not                                                               
imply full  acceptance by  the science  community; and  there are                                                               
incentives on authors as well  as journals to publish papers that                                                               
make a good news story because it helps generate reputations.                                                                   
12:10:42 PM                                                                                                                   
CHAIR STUTES thanked  the presenters and said  the information in                                                               
these  presentations  will serve  as  the  foundation for  coming                                                               
meetings.   She noted  that hatcheries  have a  tremendous effect                                                               
economically  on  Alaska, the  state's  fishermen,  and the  food                                                               
supply.  The  information in these presentations  is timely given                                                               
the  discussion at  the Board  of Fisheries.   It  is known  that                                                               
straying is occurring,  but it isn't known what  the effects are.                                                               
Is  straying also  occurring within  natural  populations?   Does                                                               
straying  of hatchery  fish  have any  negative  effects on  wild                                                               
populations?   In certain samples  from other studies,  she said,                                                               
reproductive productivity  is higher  in hatchery  fish.   Why is                                                               
that?   "The bottom line is  we don't know," she  continued.  "We                                                               
need more data  because there is a lot of  open questions and not                                                               
enough answers.   We need to  conduct more studies and  then be a                                                               
wise consumer  of that  science before  we jump  to conclusions."                                                               
She stated that this debate needs  to be governed by good science                                                               
and she  is pleased that  ADF&G and  the Board of  Fisheries have                                                               
that same stance and are looking hard at this through that lens.                                                                
12:12:22 PM                                                                                                                   
There being no further business before the committee, the House                                                                 
Special Committee on Fisheries meeting was adjourned at 12:12                                                                   

Document Name Date/Time Subjects
(H)FSH Hatchery Statutes & Regs Overview 3.14.19.pdf HFSH 3/14/2019 11:00:00 AM
(H)FSH Overview of Hatchery Related Research 3.14.19.pdf HFSH 3/14/2019 11:00:00 AM