Legislature(2021 - 2022)DAVIS 106

03/11/2022 08:00 AM House EDUCATION

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                    ALASKA STATE LEGISLATURE                                                                                  
               HOUSE EDUCATION STANDING COMMITTEE                                                                             
                         March 11, 2022                                                                                         
                           8:04 a.m.                                                                                            
MEMBERS PRESENT                                                                                                               
Representative Harriet Drummond, Co-Chair                                                                                       
Representative Andi Story, Co-Chair                                                                                             
Representative Tiffany Zulkosky                                                                                                 
Representative Grier Hopkins                                                                                                    
Representative Mike Prax                                                                                                        
Representative Ronald Gillham                                                                                                   
MEMBERS ABSENT                                                                                                                
Representative Mike Cronk                                                                                                       
COMMITTEE CALENDAR                                                                                                            
CS FOR SENATE BILL NO. 72(FIN)                                                                                                  
"An Act relating to civics education, civics assessments, and                                                                   
secondary school graduation requirements; and providing for an                                                                  
effective date."                                                                                                                
     - HEARD & HELD                                                                                                             
HOUSE BILL NO. 147                                                                                                              
"An Act relating to the teacher education loan program; and                                                                     
providing for an effective date."                                                                                               
     - HEARD & HELD                                                                                                             
HOUSE BILL NO. 312                                                                                                              
"An Act relating to dress codes and natural hairstyles."                                                                        
     - SCHEDULED BUT NOT HEARD                                                                                                  
PREVIOUS COMMITTEE ACTION                                                                                                     
BILL: SB  72                                                                                                                  
SHORT TITLE: SEC. SCHOOL CIVICS EDUCATION                                                                                       
SPONSOR(s): SENATOR(s) STEVENS                                                                                                  
02/05/21       (S)       READ THE FIRST TIME - REFERRALS                                                                        
02/05/21       (S)       EDC, CRA                                                                                               
03/10/21       (S)       EDC AT 9:00 AM BUTROVICH 205                                                                           
03/10/21       (S)       Heard & Held                                                                                           
03/10/21       (S)       MINUTE(EDC)                                                                                            
03/19/21       (S)       EDC AT 9:00 AM BUTROVICH 205                                                                           
03/19/21       (S)       Heard & Held                                                                                           
03/19/21       (S)       MINUTE(EDC)                                                                                            
03/22/21       (S)       EDC AT 9:00 AM BUTROVICH 205                                                                           
03/22/21       (S)       Scheduled but Not Heard                                                                                
03/24/21       (S)       EDC RPT CS 5DP NEW TITLE                                                                               
03/24/21       (S)       DP: HOLLAND, HUGHES, STEVENS, MICCICHE,                                                                
03/24/21       (S)       EDC AT 9:00 AM BUTROVICH 205                                                                           
03/24/21       (S)       Moved CSSB 72(EDC) Out of Committee                                                                    
03/24/21       (S)       MINUTE(EDC)                                                                                            
03/30/21       (S)       CRA AT 3:30 PM BELTZ 105 (TSBldg)                                                                      
03/30/21       (S)       Heard & Held                                                                                           
03/30/21       (S)       MINUTE(CRA)                                                                                            
04/08/21       (S)       CRA AT 3:30 PM BELTZ 105 (TSBldg)                                                                      
04/08/21       (S)       Heard & Held                                                                                           
04/08/21       (S)       MINUTE(CRA)                                                                                            
04/20/21       (S)       CRA AT 3:30 PM BELTZ 105 (TSBldg)                                                                      
04/20/21       (S)       Moved CSSB 72(CRA) Out of Committee                                                                    
04/20/21       (S)       MINUTE(CRA)                                                                                            
04/21/21       (S)       CRA RPT CS  2DP 2NR NEW TITLE                                                                          
04/21/21       (S)       DP: HUGHES, GRAY-JACKSON                                                                               
04/21/21       (S)       NR: MYERS, WILSON                                                                                      
04/21/21       (S)       FIN REFERRAL ADDED AFTER CRA                                                                           
02/01/22       (S)       FIN AT 1:00 PM SENATE FINANCE 532                                                                      
02/01/22       (S)       -- Invited Testimony --                                                                                
02/08/22       (S)       FIN AT 1:00 PM SENATE FINANCE 532                                                                      
02/08/22       (S)       Moved CSSB 72(FIN) Out of Committee                                                                    
02/08/22       (S)       MINUTE(FIN)                                                                                            
02/09/22       (S)       FIN RPT CS  4DP 1NR NEW TITLE                                                                          
02/09/22       (S)       DP:     STEDMAN,    BISHOP,     HOFFMAN,                                                               
02/09/22       (S)       NR: OLSON                                                                                              
02/16/22       (S)       TRANSMITTED TO (H)                                                                                     
02/16/22       (S)       VERSION: CSSB 72(FIN)                                                                                  
02/17/22       (H)       READ THE FIRST TIME - REFERRALS                                                                        
02/17/22       (H)       EDC, FIN                                                                                               
03/11/22       (H)       EDC AT 8:00 AM DAVIS 106                                                                               
BILL: HB 147                                                                                                                  
SHORT TITLE: RURAL DEF. TEACHER EDUCATION LOAN PROGRAM                                                                          
SPONSOR(s): REPRESENTATIVE(s) ZULKOSKY                                                                                          
03/24/21       (H)       READ THE FIRST TIME - REFERRALS                                                                        
03/24/21       (H)       EDC, FIN                                                                                               
03/11/22       (H)       EDC AT 8:00 AM DAVIS 106                                                                               
BILL: HB 312                                                                                                                  
SHORT TITLE: ALLOW NATURAL HAIRSTYLES                                                                                           
SPONSOR(s): REPRESENTATIVE(s) TARR                                                                                              
02/09/22       (H)       READ THE FIRST TIME - REFERRALS                                                                        
02/09/22       (H)       EDC, L&C                                                                                               
03/11/22       (H)       EDC AT 8:00 AM DAVIS 106                                                                               
WITNESS REGISTER                                                                                                              
SENATOR GARY STEVENS                                                                                                            
Alaska State Legislature                                                                                                        
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  As prime sponsor, introduced CSSB 72(FIN).                                                               
TIM LAMKIN, Staff                                                                                                               
Senator Gary Stevens                                                                                                            
Alaska State Legislature                                                                                                        
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  On behalf of Senator Stevens, prime                                                                      
sponsor, gave a sectional analysis of CSSB 72(FIN).                                                                             
MICHAEL JOHNSON, PhD, Commissioner                                                                                              
Department of Education and Early Development                                                                                   
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  Testified during the hearing in support of                                                               
CSSB 72(FIN).                                                                                                                   
CHRISTINE HUTCHINSON,                                                                                                           
representing self                                                                                                               
Kenai, Alaska                                                                                                                   
POSITION STATEMENT:  Testified in support of CSSB 72(FIN).                                                                    
KATY GIORGIO, Staff                                                                                                             
Representative Tiffany Zulkosky                                                                                                 
Alaska State Legislature                                                                                                        
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  On behalf of Representative Zulkosky, prime                                                              
sponsor, gave a sectional analysis of the proposed CS for HB
147, Version B.                                                                                                                 
SANA EFIRD, Executive Director                                                                                                  
Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education                                                                                    
Department of Education and Early Development                                                                                   
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  Answered questions  during the hearing on HB
147, Version B.                                                                                                                 
MADELINE REICHARD, Teacher                                                                                                      
Lower Kuskokwim School District                                                                                                 
Bethel, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  Testified in support of HB 147, Version B.                                                               
KIMBERLY HANKINS, Superintendent                                                                                                
Lower Kuskokwim School District                                                                                                 
Bethel, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  Testified in support of HB 147, Version B.                                                               
SEGUE GRANT, Vice President                                                                                                     
National Education Association, Alaska Affiliate                                                                                
Bethel, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  Testified in support of HB 147, Version B.                                                               
LISA PARADY, PhD, Executive Director                                                                                            
Alaska Council of School Administrators                                                                                         
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  Testified in support of HB 147, Version B.                                                               
ACTION NARRATIVE                                                                                                              
8:04:02 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR  HARRIET DRUMMOND  called the  House Education  Standing                                                             
Committee  meeting  to  order  at   7:40  a.m.    Representatives                                                               
Gillham, Zulkosky,  Hopkins, Drummond, and Story  were present at                                                               
the call  to order.   Representative Prax arrived as  the meeting                                                               
was in progress.                                                                                                                
               SB 72-SEC. SCHOOL CIVICS EDUCATION                                                                           
8:05:13 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR  DRUMMOND announced  that  the first  order of  business                                                               
would be  CS FOR  SENATE BILL  NO. 72(FIN),  "An Act  relating to                                                               
civics  education,  civics   assessments,  and  secondary  school                                                               
graduation requirements; and providing for an effective date."                                                                  
8:05:27 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  GARY   STEVENS,  Alaska  State  Legislature,   as  prime                                                               
sponsor,  introduced  CSSB  72(FIN).     He  explained  that  the                                                               
proposed legislation would create  a [secondary school] exit exam                                                               
in the  form of a  civics assessment.   He stated that  in recent                                                               
years he has witnessed apathy and  division in the country and in                                                               
the  schools.   He  commented  that students  have  done well  in                                                               
science, mathematics,  reading, and  writing, but  in comparison,                                                               
civics  education  has  taken  a  "back seat."    He  shared  the                                                               
observation  that  other  states are  changing  civics  education                                                               
policies by  creating new curriculum, providing  assessments, and                                                               
offering   volunteer  programs   and  leadership   workshops  for                                                               
students.  He  expressed urgency to reverse the  recent trend and                                                               
restore faith  and understanding in  the government by  making an                                                               
investment in the future of the  country.  He contended that CSSB
72(FIN) is  an effort to educate  students on both the  system of                                                               
government in the country and the cultural diversity in Alaska.                                                                 
SENATOR STEVENS  stated that the  proposed civics exam  would not                                                               
be  considered high  stakes, as  a  student could  take the  test                                                               
repeatedly  until  70  percent of  the  questions  were  answered                                                               
correctly.   He described the process  of retaking the exam  as a                                                               
method for  learning.  He  added that the  test would not  stop a                                                               
student from  graduating.   He indicated  that the  Department of                                                               
Education and  Early Development  (DEED) has  agreed to  create a                                                               
civics  curriculum  unique to  Alaska.    He stated  he  believes                                                               
synonymously  with  the  country's   Founding  Fathers  that  the                                                               
fundamental purpose  of the public  education system is  to teach                                                               
the meaning of citizenship and  to create a population of citizen                                                               
voters.  He  described a personal experience from  his youth when                                                               
he attended a mock legislative  session; he conjectured that this                                                               
experience moved him to be involved in government.                                                                              
8:09:03 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR STEVENS stated  that, with no offense  intended, he would                                                               
like to  distribute a civics exam  to the committee members.   He                                                               
explained  that  the  exam [included  in  the  committee  packet]                                                               
consists of  42 questions that  are part of the  U.S. Citizenship                                                               
and Immigration Services naturalization exam.   He related a joke                                                               
that he  missed a few questions,  reinforcing that the test  is a                                                               
learning opportunity.   He related that many  school districts in                                                               
the state already provide instruction  [in civics education].  He                                                               
stated that the  legislation would require every  student to take                                                               
the test,  adding that it  is a way for  students to learn  to be                                                               
citizens.  He  related the personal experience  that, unlike now,                                                               
he could not vote  until the age of 21.   He remembered the first                                                               
time he voted as a great experience.                                                                                            
8:11:01 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR DRUMMOND thanked Senator  Stevens and questioned whether                                                               
committee members should take the  test now.  She then questioned                                                               
whether he managed [the Task Force on Civics Education].                                                                        
8:11:31 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR STEVENS  answered that the committee  members should take                                                               
the test home.   He answered that he managed  the task force with                                                               
support  from DEED  and the  school  districts.   He stated  that                                                               
after  working on  the  task force  many  school districts  moved                                                               
ahead  with civics  programs.   He reiterated  that the  Founding                                                               
Fathers  of  the country  sought  to  create citizens,  and  this                                                               
legislation is part of that process.                                                                                            
8:12:06 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR DRUMMOND  related a personal  story that her  mother, as                                                               
an immigrant, took the naturalization  test years ago to become a                                                               
citizen.   She  stated  that  she learned  from  her mother,  who                                                               
survived  World   War  II,   to  never   forget  [the   value  of                                                               
8:12:51 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  STEVENS offered  that DEED  would design  an appropriate                                                               
test specific  to Alaska.   In response to Co-Chair  Drummond, he                                                               
stated that the  test passed out to the committee  is a sample of                                                               
the  naturalization test  given to  U.S. immigrants  applying for                                                               
8:13:35 AM                                                                                                                    
TIM   LAMKIN,  Staff,   Senator   Gary   Stevens,  Alaska   State                                                               
Legislature, on behalf of Senator  Stevens, prime sponsor, gave a                                                               
sectional analysis of CSSB 72(FIN).   He stated that the proposed                                                               
legislation is  the recommendation of  [the Task Force  on Civics                                                               
Education].  He  stated that committee members can  find the task                                                               
force's final document posted on BASIS.                                                                                         
8:14:33 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. LAMKIN proceeded  to the sectional analysis  of CSSB 72(FIN),                                                               
[included  in  the  committee  packet],  which  read  as  follows                                                               
[original punctuation provided]:                                                                                                
     Sec. 1: AS 14.03.076, relating to public schools, adds                                                                   
             a new section                                                                                                      
          a.   directing the State Board of Education &                                                                         
               Early Development (SBOE) to develop                                                                              
          curriculum and a related assessment based on                                                                          
               the civics portion of the naturalization                                                                         
               examination administered by the U.S.                                                                             
               Department of Homeland Security for                                                                              
               immigrants seeking U.S. citizenship. The                                                                         
               curriculum and assessment must also include                                                                      
               systems of Alaska Tribal government;                                                                             
          b.  requiring students to pass the assessment                                                                         
          established in (a) above in order to receive                                                                          
               a high school diploma, with exceptions for                                                                       
          students with a disability and who receive a                                                                          
               waiver from their local school board;                                                                            
          c.   schools are to document on student                                                                               
               transcripts when a student has passed the                                                                        
               assessment, with the option for the student                                                                      
               to retake the assessment;                                                                                        
          d. districts are required to report annually                                                                          
               on their respective civics course offerings                                                                      
               and overall average student score on the                                                                         
               assessment; and                                                                                                  
          e.   a passing score is defined as correctly                                                                          
               answering 70% or more on the civics                                                                              
     Section 2: AS 14.07.168, relating to reporting                                                                           
               requirements of the SBOE, to include in                                                                          
               their annual report to the legislature a                                                                         
               description of civics education curriculum                                                                       
               in the state, of civics-related course                                                                           
               offerings in respective districts, and of                                                                        
               student performance on the assessment                                                                            
               described in section 1, by                                                                                       
      Section 3: Provides for an effective date of July 1,                                                                      
8:18:25 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR DRUMMOND questioned whether 70 percent of the test                                                                     
questions must be answered correctly to pass the U.S.                                                                           
naturalization exam.                                                                                                            
8:18:42 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. LAMKIN  responded that  the minimum  passing score  to attain                                                               
U.S.  citizenship is  60  percent  correct.   He  noted that  the                                                               
average immigrant  scored around 84  percent.  In  comparison, he                                                               
cited  a poll  that found  some of  the school  districts in  the                                                               
state had scores as low as 3 percent correct.                                                                                   
8:19:26 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR  DRUMMOND commented  that, owing  to these  numbers, the                                                               
students in  the state deserve  more.   She added that,  owing to                                                               
the committee  members' participation in government,  it would be                                                               
interesting to  see how  they do  on the test.   She  offered the                                                               
joke that there should be no cheating.                                                                                          
8:19:45 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  STEVENS responded  that the  committee members'  results                                                               
would  not be  shared.   He stated  that this  test is  for self-                                                               
edification to realize the "holes" in everyone's education.                                                                     
8:19:58 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. LAMKIN,  in response to  Representative Gillham,  stated that                                                               
the language in  the bill gives districts flexibility  and is not                                                               
meant to be prescriptive.   He cited that the naturalization test                                                               
consists of  10 questions randomly  picked from around  140 study                                                               
questions.    To  pass  the  naturalization test,  6  out  of  10                                                               
questions need to be answered correctly.                                                                                        
8:20:50 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  STEVENS stated  that the  test handed  to the  committee                                                               
members is  not the  test that  would be given  to students.   He                                                               
stated that DEED would create a test specific to Alaska.                                                                        
8:21:13 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR STORY  asked whether school districts  have responded to                                                               
the bill,  as teachers have  conveyed concerns that  testing does                                                               
not capture students' comprehension.   Referring to students with                                                               
test anxiety, she  suggested that repeatedly taking  a test could                                                               
have negative  effects on self-esteem, while  hands-on activities                                                               
are  more  conducive  to  learning.     She  questioned  why  the                                                               
legislation  does not  incorporate  civics  into courses  already                                                               
offered by school  districts.  She argued that  a course offering                                                               
information and exercises  would be more useful than  one test as                                                               
the  only  "tool in  the  toolbox."    She expressed  doubt  that                                                               
passing a civics test would make students "model" citizens.                                                                     
8:23:43 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR  STEVENS  referenced  Co-Chair Story's  background  as  a                                                               
teacher and expressed  appreciation for the question.   He stated                                                               
that the proposed  legislation is not the only  answer, and there                                                               
are other  ways to  help young people  understand the  meaning of                                                               
citizenship.  He  offered his understanding on the  issue of test                                                               
anxiety  but   asserted  that   retaking  the   test  can   be  a                                                               
progression,  and   students  would   realize  they   [gained  an                                                               
understanding of civics] through the process.                                                                                   
8:24:45 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. LAMKIN,  in response to  Representative Hopkins,  stated that                                                               
he has researched each  school district's graduation requirements                                                               
and  compiled a  binder with  this information.   He  stated that                                                               
there  is a  social studies  component,  but it  may not  specify                                                               
[Native Alaska] civics.                                                                                                         
REPRESENTATIVE  HOPKINS posited  whether  options,  other than  a                                                               
test, could  reflect the same comprehensive  knowledge of civics.                                                               
He  questioned whether  the  legislation  is to  be  kept to  one                                                               
standardized test.                                                                                                              
8:25:45 AM                                                                                                                    
SENATOR STEVENS stated that any  changes to the legislation would                                                               
be considered.   He added that  some of the larger  districts are                                                               
doing an exceptional job [incorporating  civics], but this is not                                                               
seen in the  smaller districts.  He stated  that the commissioner                                                               
of DEED would speak to this.                                                                                                    
8:26:18 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR STORY  thanked Senator Stevens  and shared that  she was                                                               
never a  teacher; instead,  she sat  on the  school board  for 18                                                               
8:27:15 AM                                                                                                                    
MICHAEL JOHNSON,  PhD, Commissioner, Department of  Education and                                                               
Early  Development, testified  in support  of CSSB  72(FIN).   He                                                               
expressed  gratitude to  Senator  Stevens for  the  bill and  his                                                               
statesmanship.   He  stated that  civics education  is not  a new                                                               
idea, but  timely wisdom.   He paraphrased  Plato in  saying that                                                               
schools should  create good  men and  women that  act nobly.   He                                                               
added  that "if  the education  system does  less than  that, all                                                               
efforts for life,  liberty, and the pursuit of  happiness will be                                                               
thwarted."   He  cited a  [2018]  study from  the Woodrow  Wilson                                                               
National  Fellowship Foundation  that  found only  36 percent  of                                                               
Americans  passed a  multiply-choice citizenship  test.   He said                                                               
that that  test is comparable to  the test passed out  during the                                                               
meeting to  committee members.   He stated  that the  study found                                                               
less than  25 percent of Americans  knew why the U.S.  fought the                                                               
British, and  only 24  percent of  Americans could  name anything                                                               
Benjamin  Franklin accomplished.   He  added that  74 percent  of                                                               
Americans  aged 65  and  older  scored the  best,  while only  19                                                               
percent of those aged 45 and  younger passed.  He emphasized that                                                               
these statistics support the legislation's importance.                                                                          
COMMISSIONER JOHNSON stated that he  does not have specific data;                                                               
nonetheless, he  asserted confidence that few  citizens in Alaska                                                               
understand  Alaska  Native history  and  tribal  governance.   He                                                               
described  this   knowledge  as  an  essential   part  of  civics                                                               
education in the  state.  He referred to a  presentation given on                                                               
March 4, 2021,  by the House Special Committee  on Tribal Affairs                                                               
[on layers  of governance].   He described the presentation  as a                                                               
perfect example of  Alaska civics education.  He  stated that the                                                               
legislation is  a needed effort  to repair the foundation  of the                                                               
state's education system.  He  explained that civics education is                                                               
about  purpose,  and  a public  education  system  without  clear                                                               
purpose is expensive,  ineffective, and corrosive to  society.  A                                                               
purposeful  public  education  system  improves  society  through                                                               
efficiency and effectiveness.   He stated that  this bill further                                                               
implements  a long-time  statute that  affirms the  legislature's                                                               
purpose for education.  He read AS 14.03.015, which follows:                                                                    
     It  is the  policy of  this state  that the  purpose of                                                                  
     education  is to  help ensure  that  all students  will                                                                  
     succeed in  their education and work,  shape worthwhile                                                                  
     and  satisfying  lives  for themselves,  exemplify  the                                                                  
     best values  of society, and be  effective in improving                                                                  
     the character and quality of the world about them.                                                                       
COMMISSIONER  JOHNSON stated  that this  statute also  represents                                                               
the  SBOE's vision  statement and  is  a great  description of  a                                                               
purposeful education in  civics.  He stated that  every dollar of                                                               
the $1.6 billion spent annually  on public education in the state                                                               
should have a purpose.  As the  state comes out of the [COVID 19]                                                               
pandemic,  he  expressed  hope  that  the  benchmark  for  school                                                               
districts is higher than "merely" having its schools open.                                                                      
8:32:02 AM                                                                                                                    
COMMISSIONER  JOHNSON argued  that opening  schools is  good, but                                                               
the difficulty is  in being purposeful and  effective [within the                                                               
school].  He referred to  President John F. Kennedy's speech that                                                               
questioned  spending the  country's money  on the  exploration of                                                               
the moon.   He said that President Kennedy relayed  in the speech                                                               
that  going to  the moon  was not  about improving  the moon  but                                                               
making America  better.  He  said, "Let's not storm  the capitol.                                                               
Let's teach  our kids to  read. ... Let's  show them how  to work                                                               
together to  create good policy.   Let's teach them the  value of                                                               
liberty, and never  take it for granted.  Let's  show them how to                                                               
embrace what  is difficult, because  it makes us better  and more                                                               
thankful."  He  stated that, as members of  the state government,                                                               
it  is appropriate  to  have high  expectations  for schools  and                                                               
students  in   Alaska  through  strong  legislation,   like  CSSB
72(FIN).    He  expressed  anticipation to  work  with  the  bill                                                               
sponsor.  In conclusion, he stated  that the challenge may not be                                                               
simply passing and implementing the  legislation but living up to                                                               
the civility and the character expected of students.                                                                            
8:34:56 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE PRAX  agreed with Commissioner Johnson  on Plato's                                                               
purpose of  public education.   In  reference to  the requirement                                                               
that the test be taken until  it is passed, he contended that any                                                               
test  measuring  knowledge should  be  this  way.   He  expressed                                                               
unease  at setting  a  centralized standard.    He surmised  that                                                               
formulating  the section  of  the civics  exam  on Alaska  Tribal                                                               
government  would be  difficult, as  there are  21 Native  Alaska                                                               
languages recognized in  the state.  He questioned  how to decide                                                               
on an applicable  and meaningful standard for a  test specific to                                                               
Alaska civics.                                                                                                                  
COMMISSIONER  JOHNSON responded  that Native  Alaska tribes  have                                                               
commonalities,  including  history.   He  compared  an  inclusive                                                               
civics  standard  for the  tribes  in  Alaska with  the  American                                                               
history  standard that  includes  all 50  states.   He  expressed                                                               
respect to Representative  Prax and recommended that  he view the                                                               
presentation  from March  4,  2021, given  by  the House  Special                                                               
Committee on  Tribal Affairs.   He  stated that  the presentation                                                               
helps to understand the standards.   He expressed confidence that                                                               
watching the presentation  would help inform viewers  what can be                                                               
8:38:48 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE PRAX stated that he  remembered being 13 years old                                                               
when his  family moved to  Alaska and being taught  Alaska Native                                                               
history.   He suggested  that because  there are  more indigenous                                                               
Native Alaskans,  than in  other states, there  would be  more to                                                               
learn.   He  continued that  a  13-year-old moving  to the  state                                                               
would have more to learn to meet the test standards.                                                                            
8:39:54 AM                                                                                                                    
COMMISSIONER  JOHNSON stated  that,  like with  other exams,  the                                                               
state would  accommodate students  arriving from  outside Alaska.                                                               
He expressed  confidence that  if a  13-year-old student  were to                                                               
come to Alaska,  he/she would have the time to  learn the history                                                               
and pass a  civics test.  He stated that,  in his experience, 13-                                                               
year-olds new to Alaska are eager to learn about Alaska.                                                                        
8:40:46 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR  STORY expressed  interest in  whether school  districts                                                               
have responded  to the  test requirement.   She  inquired whether                                                               
requirements for  social studies could be  interwoven with civics                                                               
COMMISSIONER  JOHNSON  conveyed  confidence in  the  teachers  of                                                               
Alaska, not  the bureaucracy.  He  suggested that if the  bill is                                                               
passed,  then  teachers  would meet  to  reference  examples  and                                                               
discuss   effective  implementation.     Regarding   testing,  he                                                               
expressed   the   belief   that  effective   education   requires                                                               
assessment.   He  noted that  that can  take different  forms, as                                                               
teachers  use creative  ways to  determine  whether students  are                                                               
8:42:29 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR STORY voiced  the belief that within  the social studies                                                               
standard  there is  an American  government  class that  includes                                                               
civics education.   She questioned whether anything  new needs to                                                               
be implemented.   She expressed  concern that a  test requirement                                                               
would involve  money and time and  whether one test is  the right                                                               
tool to evaluate learning.                                                                                                      
8:43:41 AM                                                                                                                    
COMMISSIONER  JOHNSON  maintained  that  he  has  relied  on  Mr.                                                               
Lamkin's  research  and  data  to  understand  the  situation  in                                                               
schools.  He  stated that the proposed  legislation would provide                                                               
resources to  DEED and  school districts  to create  material and                                                               
assessment.   He referred  to data  that points  out some  of the                                                               
larger school  districts have  already made  progress, explaining                                                               
that this  is an  opportunity to support  smaller districts.   He                                                               
emphasized  that  the  other  part  of  the  legislation  ensures                                                               
students in Alaska are educated  in tribal government and civics,                                                               
as  there  cannot  be an  assumption  that  curriculum  purchased                                                               
outside of Alaska contains this part.   He pointed out that there                                                               
are  partners  in the  state  who  have  already worked  on  this                                                               
portion  of the  legislation.   He expressed  excitement for  the                                                               
bill to pass  so partners can develop the  resources together and                                                               
for   this  element   to  be   incorporated  in   the  districts'                                                               
8:45:15 AM                                                                                                                    
COMMISSIONER  JOHNSON,  in  response  to  a  follow-up  question,                                                               
stated that  he is a teacher,  and he has heard  direct testimony                                                               
in other meetings from teachers  [in support of the legislation].                                                               
He stated that teachers can  be asked to provide direct testimony                                                               
to the committee,  as he does not want to  speak on their behalf.                                                               
He voiced his belief that  many teachers are excited about civics                                                               
education  and becoming  partners  in the  implementation of  the                                                               
8:46:21 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR  DRUMMOND voiced  the belief  that this  is not  a high-                                                               
stakes test and is not required  to graduate.  She suggested that                                                               
the test be given junior year,  as this would provide time before                                                               
graduation.  She  commented on the lack of  knowledge citizens of                                                               
the state  have about  Alaska Native  history, pointing  out that                                                               
current work  on a reading  bill has  been paused, as  the Native                                                               
Alaska community  requested the inclusion of  culturally relevant                                                               
education.   She said that  the value  is in how  the legislation                                                               
fits together,  and the process  should not  involve interpreting                                                               
one bill  at a time  but develop understanding across  the board,                                                               
before going forward.                                                                                                           
8:47:54 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  ZULKOSKY expressed  appreciation that  the civics                                                               
exam is not a high-stakes  test, however; the current language of                                                               
the  bill indicates  that schools  may  not issue  a high  school                                                               
diploma unless  the student has  achieved a passing score  on the                                                               
civics assessment.   She  acknowledged the use  of "may"  and not                                                               
"shall" in the language  of the bill.  Since this  is not a high-                                                               
stakes test,  she inquired about  alternative ways, other  than a                                                               
standardized  test, that  schools could  illustrate its  students                                                               
are learning civics.                                                                                                            
8:49:03 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. LAMKIN stated  that the bill reads correctly.   Students must                                                               
pass the assessment  with 70 percent correct in  order to receive                                                               
a diploma.   He continued that  "high stakes" refers to  the idea                                                               
that the test is not a  onetime pass/fail.  He indicated that the                                                               
option to take the exam repeatedly reduces the pressure.                                                                        
8:50:00 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE ZULKOSKY  stated research  from [the  Alaska Reads                                                               
Act] shows  that culturally  and linguistically  diverse students                                                               
have  challenges  within  the systemic  history  of  standardized                                                               
tests.  She stated that  her perception of high stakes implicates                                                               
diploma issuance  and not the  number of  times a test  is taken.                                                               
She  restated the  question on  whether the  sponsor's office  is                                                               
willing  to consider  other avenues  of  Alaska civics  education                                                               
without a proficiency benchmark.                                                                                                
MR. LAMKIN stated  that the bill sponsor is  amenable to whatever                                                               
the committee considers  a balanced approach in  meeting the goal                                                               
of improving and developing citizens.                                                                                           
8:51:30 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. LAMKIN, in  response to Representative Prax,  stated that the                                                               
bill retains the  maximum flexibility among districts  and is not                                                               
meant  to  be  prescriptive.   He  stated  that  the  legislation                                                               
directs DEED  and SBOE  to develop  assessment and  curriculum on                                                               
tribal government structures.  Some  districts are in the process                                                               
of  developing  their own  curriculum,  while  the curriculum  is                                                               
already in  use in  other districts.   He  stated that  last year                                                               
representatives from the First Alaskans  Institute and the Alaska                                                               
Federation of  Natives testified  on the subject.   He  stated he                                                               
would be able to bring  these representatives into the discussion                                                               
to offer more  details.  He reiterated that the  bill is meant to                                                               
be  flexible and  creative  so as  to involve  a  broad range  of                                                               
Alaska Native cultures.                                                                                                         
8:53:06 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  PRAX stated  that the  challenge of  standardized                                                               
assessment  is determining  which questions  should be  included.                                                               
He surmised  that there is even  a challenge as to  which answers                                                               
are considered correct.  He  stated that there are many different                                                               
perspectives on  what happened and  which events in  U.S. history                                                               
are  the  most   important,  along  with  the   question  of  the                                                               
government's  fundamental function.   He  expressed concern  that                                                               
[the civics  exam] would dictate  a particular version.   With no                                                               
further questions, he urged that these ideas be pondered.                                                                       
8:54:45 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  HOPKINS  offered   his  understanding  that  from                                                               
previous  testimony the  legislation would  help support  smaller                                                               
school  districts,   as  larger  school  districts   are  already                                                               
addressing the topic.  He  expressed interest in the bill's focus                                                               
on smaller school districts and  how classroom structure may help                                                               
students pass the civics test.                                                                                                  
8:55:38 AM                                                                                                                    
COMMISSIONER JOHNSON  answered that, in  order to teach  well and                                                               
support students, there  must be clarity in  what students should                                                               
learn.   He  stated  that educators  must  answer five  essential                                                               
questions every day  for each student.  He  listed the questions,                                                               
which  would  determine:  what  standard  is  effective;  how  to                                                               
instruct  effective curriculum  effectively;  what assessment  is                                                               
effective; how  to intervene effectively; and  what enrichment is                                                               
effective.  He maintained that  the bill contains support for all                                                               
these questions.   He conjectured that  partners working together                                                               
with   existing  projects   would  [achieve   the  goal   of  the                                                               
legislation].   He stated  that teachers  at the  Canvas [Studio]                                                               
are contracted to deliver curriculum  and courses.  He added that                                                               
district teachers would work with  the Canvas [Studio] to address                                                               
content, assessment, and the other  questions [listed above].  He                                                               
added that there  are accommodations for students  who need extra                                                               
support with the statewide assessment.                                                                                          
8:57:48 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  HOPKINS  argued  that students  would  be  losing                                                               
valuable class time while taking  the civics test.  He questioned                                                               
whether the format of test would  be designed by teachers and the                                                               
COMMISSIONER JOHNSON  responded that  assessment is  an essential                                                               
part of effective  instruction and part of  the learning process.                                                               
He stated that there are multiply  ways to format the test.  With                                                               
no federal  protocols, each district  could determine  the format                                                               
and  implementation of  the test.    In response  to a  follow-up                                                               
question, he  stated that  the assessment  would resemble  a test                                                               
given at the district level.                                                                                                    
8:59:51 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE HOPKINS  restated that,  along with  other testing                                                               
requirements, the civics test would  take time away from learning                                                               
in the classroom.                                                                                                               
COMMISSIONER   JOHNSON  stated   that   the  federally   required                                                               
assessments contain protocols  and must happen at  a certain time                                                               
of the year.   He reiterated that the  proposed civics assessment                                                               
would be a different type of  test.  He listed examples: the test                                                               
would not have to  be in the spring; the test  may be given after                                                               
a  student takes  a  course; and  the test  may  be given  during                                                               
sophomore or junior year.  He  stated that he does not envision a                                                               
prescriptive setting;  it could  be determined,  not only  at the                                                               
district  level, but  also  at the  individual  school level,  as                                                               
there  would  be  no  constraints of  reporting  to  the  federal                                                               
9:01:56 AM                                                                                                                    
The committee took a brief at-ease at 9:02 a.m.                                                                                 
9:02:47 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR DRUMMOND opened public testimony on CSSB 72(FIN).                                                                      
9:04:05 AM                                                                                                                    
CHRISTINE  HUTCHINSON, representing  self,  stated  that she  has                                                               
been following  the legislation since  [the Task Force  on Civics                                                               
Education] began its  work.  She said that,  through contact with                                                               
Mr. Lamkin, she  passed a copy of the task  force's report to the                                                               
curriculum department of  her local school district.   She stated                                                               
that  she is  a public  member  of the  curriculum committee  and                                                               
would be present  at the next meeting.  She  said that during its                                                               
last meeting civics was not a  high point of the discussion.  She                                                               
stated  that  she asked  the  curriculum  committee about  civics                                                               
education, and she was told "they  teach to standards, not to the                                                               
topic."     She  argued  that   civics  education  should   be  a                                                               
requirement in the  education system, as [citizens]  should be as                                                               
knowledgeable  as  immigrants about  the  U.S.  government.   She                                                               
related the  story that a  local retiree in her  community passed                                                               
the naturalization  exam at  nine years old.   She  expressed the                                                               
belief that a  13-year-old should be able to take  the exam.  She                                                               
voiced the opinion  that the exam is critical and  should be part                                                               
of the standard.  She  offered her appreciation to the committee,                                                               
the bill  sponsor, and  Mr. Lamkin.   She  stated that  she would                                                               
continue to  use the  information provided by  Mr. Lamkin  in her                                                               
group discussions on local and  state government.  She maintained                                                               
that  the issues  are  critical, and  she  reaffirmed her  strong                                                               
support of CSSB 72(FIN).                                                                                                        
9:08:07 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR DRUMMOND announced that CSSB 72(FIN) was held over.                                                                    
9:08:27 AM                                                                                                                    
The committee took an at-ease from 9:08 a.m. to 9:10 a.m.                                                                       
        HB 147-RURAL DEF. TEACHER EDUCATION LOAN PROGRAM                                                                    
9:10:55 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR  DRUMMOND announced  that  the final  order of  business                                                               
would be  HOUSE BILL  NO. 147,  "An Act  relating to  the teacher                                                               
education loan program; and providing for an effective date."                                                                   
9:11:18 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  HOPKINS moved  to  adopt  the proposed  committee                                                               
substitute  (CS)   for  HB   147,  Version   32-LS0692\B,  Klein,                                                               
5/5/2021,  as a  working  document.   There  being no  objection,                                                               
Version B was before the committee.                                                                                             
9:11:46 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE   ZULKOSKY,  as   prime  sponsor,   presented  the                                                               
proposed  CS for  HB 147,  [Version B].   She  asserted that  the                                                               
purpose of the  proposed legislation is to  address the increased                                                               
difficulty of retaining  teachers in the state.   She stated that                                                               
data  shows the  issue is  pronounced  in rural  and very  remote                                                               
communities  in  Alaska.    She   cited  a  presentation  by  the                                                               
Institute  of Education  Sciences  that relates  data on  teacher                                                               
turnover; teacher turnover is higher  in high poverty schools and                                                               
is associated  with lower student  outcomes.  Also,  high teacher                                                               
turnover is costly  for schools and districts.   She stated that,                                                               
to   improve   educator   recruitment  and   retention,   it   is                                                               
consistently recommended  to locally  grow teachers  and increase                                                               
incentives,  such as  loan forgiveness  programs.   In  alignment                                                               
with  these  recommendations,  she   provided  a  2021  factsheet                                                               
[included in the committee packet]  from the Regional Educational                                                               
Laboratory Northwest.                                                                                                           
REPRESENTATIVE ZULKOSKY  stated that  the Teacher  Education Loan                                                               
(TEL)  program was  created in  1986  and managed  by the  Alaska                                                               
Commission  on  Postsecondary  Education  (ACPE).    The  program                                                               
provided low-cost  education loans  to high school  graduates who                                                               
were pursuing careers in elementary  or secondary education.  She                                                               
stated  that each  year  ACPE mailed  nomination  forms to  rural                                                               
school districts.   The  districts nominated  students interested                                                               
in  pursuing  education as  a  career.    Upon receipt  of  these                                                               
nominations,  ACPE mailed  informational  letters concerning  the                                                               
TEL program to the students.   After confirmation of an education                                                               
program [admittance] and financial  aid eligibility, the students                                                               
then could receive $7,500 in  funding per year.  These recipients                                                               
could apply  annually, up to  five years.   She stated  that upon                                                               
program completion, the TEL  recipients could receive forgiveness                                                               
equal to 100  percent of the principal and interest,  if they met                                                               
all forgiveness eligibility requirements  and worked as a teacher                                                               
for a rural Alaska community, as defined by statute.                                                                            
9:15:23 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  ZULKOSKY   expressed  her  appreciation   to  the                                                               
committee for considering  HB 147.  She continued  that Version B                                                               
proposes a narrow  change to a statutory definition  that, due to                                                               
an  arbitrary and  outdated  population ceiling,  unintentionally                                                               
disqualifies  rural  Alaska   communities  for  loan  forgiveness                                                               
eligibility.  She indicated that  a constituent brought the issue                                                               
to her attention.   The constituent qualified  for TEL, completed                                                               
college  education,  and earned  a  master's  degree.   Currently                                                               
teaching in  Bethel, the  constituent was  informed by  ACPE that                                                               
the community  no longer met  the statutory definition  of rural.                                                               
She stated that  Version B changes the  loan program's definition                                                               
of  a rural  community to  match  the definition  in the  Medical                                                               
Education Program  for Washington, Wyoming, Alaska,  Montana, and                                                               
Idaho  (WWAMI).   She expressed  the opinion  that TEL's  current                                                               
definition of rural is arbitrary  in comparison.  She stated that                                                               
the proposed  legislation also  includes a  retroactivity clause.                                                               
This would restore eligibility of  loan forgiveness for those who                                                               
received  the  loan after  January  1,  2016.   She  stated  that                                                               
[Version B]  is an effort  to bring uniformity to  the definition                                                               
of  rural  and  fulfill  [the state's]  promise  to  Alaska-grown                                                               
teachers.   She added that  the legislation could  add incentives                                                               
for teachers to return to teach  in a rural school district.  She                                                               
stated   that  the   House  Education   Standing  Committee   has                                                               
consistently  heard  that  teachers   familiar  with  the  unique                                                               
conditions and  cultures in rural  communities contribute  to the                                                               
success of rural students.  She  encouraged the committee to do a                                                               
small part by supporting the legislation.                                                                                       
9:18:08 AM                                                                                                                    
KATY  GIORGIO,  Staff,  Representative Tiffany  Zulkosky,  Alaska                                                               
State Legislature,  on behalf  of Representative  Zulkosky, prime                                                               
sponsor,  gave a  sectional analysis  of the  proposed CS  for HB
147, [Version B].   She stated that Section 1  of the bill aligns                                                               
population limits in  the TEL program with the  definition in the                                                               
WWAMI program.  She stated that  there are two different types of                                                               
rural communities: those off the  road system and those connected                                                               
by roads to  Anchorage or Fairbanks.  She  explained that Section                                                               
1 raises the  population requirement ceiling from  5,500 or less,                                                               
to 7,500  or less, matching  the TEL program definition  of rural                                                               
communities off the road system  to the WWAMI program definition.                                                               
This  change would  include  Bethel  and Kodiak  on  the list  of                                                               
communities defined  as rural.   She stated  that Version  B does                                                               
not change  the rural  requirements for  communities on  the road                                                               
system.  She added that the  WWAMI definition of rural schools on                                                               
the road system  is a population of 3,500 or  less, while the TEL                                                               
definition is  1,500 or less.   She stated that the  bill sponsor                                                               
would welcome a  friendly amendment to change  the TEL definition                                                               
of  rural schools  on the  road system  from 1,500  to 3,500,  to                                                               
match WWAMI's definition.  She stated  if an amendment were to be                                                               
presented,  the list  of  rural communities  on  the road  system                                                               
would  then include  Seward, North  Pole,  Willow, Anchor  Point,                                                               
Kenai, Farm Loop, and Houston.                                                                                                  
MS.  GIORGIO stated  that Section  2 would  make the  legislation                                                               
retroactive to  January 1, 2016.   This clause enables  the state                                                               
to  fulfill its  promise to  rural teachers  who entered  the TEL                                                               
program in  good faith that their  loans would be forgiven.   She                                                               
stated that,  while the TEL  program has ceased, there  are still                                                               
teachers  in rural  areas who  are  seeking to  have their  loans                                                               
forgiven.   She stated  that Section  3 establishes  an effective                                                               
9:20:21 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE GILLHAM  asked if  teachers, who have  been paying                                                               
back  their loans,  would receive  reimbursements for  the entire                                                               
9:20:43 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE ZULKOSKY  responded that  she would like  to defer                                                               
Representative Gillham's  question to  the executive  director of                                                               
ACPE.   In response to  Co-Chair Drummond's  question, concerning                                                               
the two different fiscal notes,  she stated that the most recent,                                                               
larger  fiscal note  of  $3 million  reflects  the original  bill                                                               
version, in which an unintentional  change made the definition of                                                               
rural  communities  too  broad.   She  stated  that  by  adopting                                                               
Version B the  population ceiling is lifted from  5,500 to 7,500,                                                               
in  alignment with  WWAMI's definition  of rural  communities off                                                               
the  road system.   She  assured the  committee that  the smaller                                                               
fiscal note of $1 million is aligned with Version B.                                                                            
9:22:55 AM                                                                                                                    
SANA   EFIRD,   Executive    Director,   Alaska   Commission   on                                                               
Postsecondary  Education,  Department   of  Education  and  Early                                                               
Development,  answered questions  during the  hearing on  HB 147,                                                               
[Version B].   In response to Representative  Gillham, she stated                                                               
that when the  [TEL] program began, the borrowers  in the program                                                               
initially   received  funds   from   the   Alaska  Student   Loan                                                               
Corporation (ASLC).   She  stated that  general funds  were never                                                               
appropriated for  the loan forgiveness piece  of the legislation;                                                               
therefore,  when   loans  were  repaid,  they   would  have  been                                                               
contributed  to ASLC.   She  stated  that the  fiscal note  shows                                                               
[loan  repayment]   funds  -  that   would  have  been   for  the                                                               
forgiveness  piece  - going  back  to  the ASLC  through  general                                                               
funds.   She stated that  since TEL was  a state program,  it was                                                               
not initially  covered to provide  forgiveness.  She  stated that                                                               
this is her understanding of  the original intent of the program,                                                               
that there  were never general  funds to backfill or  support the                                                               
9:24:20 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE HOPKINS  offered his understanding that  the [TEL]                                                               
program has stopped  operation.  He suggested that  the bill just                                                               
supports  educators in  Bethel  who were  initially  part of  the                                                               
program, but now excluded.   He clarified that the legislation is                                                               
not opening  the door to  new teachers but only  provides funding                                                               
for those  who were left in  "the donut hole" of  Bethel when the                                                               
program was operating.                                                                                                          
9:24:58 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. EFRID  responded that this  is the  spirit and intent  of the                                                               
bill.   She stated that  the program no longer  functions because                                                               
there is no support for the forgiveness piece.                                                                                  
9:25:23 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  HOPKINS  estimated  that   $1  million  would  be                                                               
available for  20 eligible teachers,  and that this would  be the                                                               
only cost.   He questioned whether the $1 million  would come out                                                               
of the general fund or from ASLC.                                                                                               
MS. EFRID responded  that the $1 million is  being requested from                                                               
the general fund.  She noted  that Kodiak would also be included,                                                               
if the definition changes for off-road rural communities.                                                                       
REPRESENTATIVE  ZULKOSKY underscored  that  a friendly  amendment                                                               
could expand  the definition for  on-road communities  to include                                                               
the  communities of  Seward, North  Pole,  Willow, Anchor  Point,                                                               
Kenai, Farm  Loop, and Houston.   She noted that  this population                                                               
limit change would likely alter the fiscal note.                                                                                
9:27:03 AM                                                                                                                    
The committee took a brief at-ease at 9:27 a.m.                                                                                 
9:27:28 AM                                                                                                                    
MADELINE  REICHARD,  Teacher,  Lower Kuskokwim  School  District,                                                               
testified in  support of  HB 147, [Version  B].   She paraphrased                                                               
from the  following written statement [included  in the committee                                                               
packet], which read as follows [original punctuation provided]:                                                                 
     Thank you  Madam Chair for  the opportunity  to testify                                                                    
     in support of  HB 147[;] my name  is Madelene Reichard.                                                                    
     My  [Yup'ik]  name  is  Arnaucuaq,  I  am  named  after                                                                    
     Arnaucuaq  Angiak   from  Tununak  Alaska  who   was  a                                                                    
     storyteller, which is why I think  I talk so much. So I                                                                    
     will try to keep it brief today.                                                                                           
     -I am a teacher here in Bethel at Ayaprun Elitnaurvik,                                                                     
     our [Yup'ik] charter school.                                                                                               
     I was born and raised  here in Bethel and am incredibly                                                                    
     proud to have grown up  in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta. I                                                                    
     attended  elementary,  middle   and  high  school  here                                                                    
     before graduating  from Bethel Regional High  School in                                                                    
     -Prior to  graduating in  the fall  of 2010,  the Lower                                                                    
     Kuskokwim School District (LKSD)  selected me for their                                                                    
     future  teacher candidate  scholarship, they  submitted                                                                    
     my  name to  the  State of  Alaska  through the  Alaska                                                                    
     Commission  on  Postsecondary  Education (ACPE)  to  be                                                                    
     considered  for   the  Teacher  Education   Loan  (TEL)                                                                    
     -I  was subsequently  accepted  into  the TEL  program.                                                                    
     Where was  mutually agreed upon  that if I  returned to                                                                    
     rural Alaska  to teach  for 4 years  that the  TEL loan                                                                    
     would be forgiven in full,  and any payments I had made                                                                    
     towards the loan would be returned to me.                                                                                  
     -I attended  the University of  Oregon and  received my                                                                    
     Bachelor of Science in  Educational Foundations. I then                                                                    
     continued into  an accelerated program in  which I also                                                                    
     earned my  Master's Degree in Curriculum  and Teaching,                                                                    
     with  a  special  focus  in  elementary  education  and                                                                    
     English as a second language.                                                                                              
     -Upon  graduating   in  2016,  I  happily   accepted  a                                                                    
     teaching  position with  LKSD  at  the Bethel  Regional                                                                    
     High School.  After one  year there,  I accepted  a new                                                                    
     position at  Ayaprun Elitnaurvik  where I  am currently                                                                    
     teaching,  right  now  Kindergarten-6th grade  art  and                                                                    
     English Language Development.                                                                                              
     -Mrs. Hankins  and Mr.  Daniel can  speak more  to this                                                                    
     but My  school is  a Title  1 Yup'ik  Immersion Charter                                                                    
     school wherein  90% of our students  are Alaska Native.                                                                    
     We  focus  on  language   and  cultural  education  and                                                                    
     preservation as well as western education.                                                                                 
9:30:11 AM                                                                                                                    
     -Teacher  retention  has  been  a  long-standing  issue                                                                    
     within rural communities. For  some rural districts the                                                                    
     teacher turnover  rate is as  high as 50-80%  per year,                                                                    
     as you have  heard recently and this  revolving door of                                                                    
     teachers  leaving has  detrimental effects  on students                                                                    
     in  our  area.  Growing  up  as  a  student  here,  the                                                                    
     turnover   of  teachers   is   very   evident.  It   is                                                                    
     disruptive.  You  lack  consistency. You  miss  out  on                                                                    
     opportunities  to build  trust  and  focus on  learning                                                                    
     because you are constantly having to adapt[.]                                                                              
     -Having   to   frequently  reintroduce   yourself   and                                                                    
     learning  needs as  well as  readjust  to new  teachers                                                                    
     every year,  especially ones who  do not  understand or                                                                    
     value  the  cultural  background   you  come  from,  is                                                                    
     - It  was very important to  me to come home  and teach                                                                    
     to  provide another  stable,  consistent influence  for                                                                    
     kids that  grew up just  like me.  I want to  show that                                                                    
     kids  from  our  community can  succeed.  Having  local                                                                    
     teachers  who understand  your language,  your culture,                                                                    
     the community  removes a barrier  and allows you  to be                                                                    
     in  a better  starting  position as  a  teacher. I  was                                                                    
     especially  enthusiastic  to  return to  the  state  of                                                                    
     Alaska and  specifically Bethel,  because it's  my home                                                                    
     and  I want  to give  back  to the  community that  has                                                                    
     always supported  me. One  of my  favorite parts  of my                                                                    
     job is  getting to work  with families I have  known my                                                                    
     whole life or to  build relationships with new families                                                                    
     getting  to watch  their children  learn and  grow from                                                                    
     kindergarten to junior high.                                                                                               
     -After  my  first  year  of   teaching  I  applied  for                                                                    
     forgiveness from ACPE  as I had been  instructed. I was                                                                    
     shocked when  I received  a letter  back from  the ACPE                                                                    
     stating  I  had  not  been  approved  for  forgiveness,                                                                    
     because  my  school  was  not  in  a  rural  community.                                                                    
     According  to AS  14.43.700, "rural  means a  community                                                                    
     with  a  population  of  5,500  or  less  that  is  not                                                                    
     connected   by   road   or   rail   to   Anchorage   or                                                                    
     -These  population guidelines  were originally  set the                                                                    
     year  I  was  born,  which   as  my  students  like  to                                                                    
     constantly remind  me? was a  very long time  ago, left                                                                    
     no room for population  growth or any language allowing                                                                    
     for mirroring of Federal or other state guidelines.                                                                        
     -Bethel  does  not   technically  meet  the  population                                                                    
     component  of the  definition.  However,  I would  note                                                                    
     that because  of its remote location  "not connected by                                                                    
     road or  rail to Anchorage  or Fairbanks," it  is clear                                                                    
     to  anyone who  has  lived, worked,  or visited  Bethel                                                                    
     that it is, in fact, a very rural community.                                                                               
     -The  goal of  programs like  the LKSD  scholarship and                                                                    
     TEL is  to create homegrown teachers.  The programs are                                                                    
     meant to help improve  teacher retention by encouraging                                                                    
     local students  to become teachers and  return to their                                                                    
     home communities.                                                                                                          
     - That is why this  issue is consequential not only for                                                                    
     me  but  for all  rural  students  who wish  to  become                                                                    
     teachers in the future. If we  as a state plan to truly                                                                    
     invest in  the future of education,  this program would                                                                    
     benefit from  a rewrite.  During this pandemic  we have                                                                    
     seen teacher retention rates taken  an even greater hit                                                                    
     and we  owe it  to our  kids to do  better for  them. I                                                                    
     have spoken  to Department Directors,  The Commissioner                                                                    
     of Education  and even  the Governor  himself, everyone                                                                    
     was equally  confused and in support  of the definition                                                                    
     changing to reflection what is accurate.                                                                                   
     -I am a  proud public school educator  committed to the                                                                    
     education of  students in  the YK delta  but I  am also                                                                    
     just a kid from Bethel,  asking for the state of Alaska                                                                    
     to hold up  the end of their promise so  I can continue                                                                    
     to hold  up my side  of teaching these awesome  kids in                                                                    
     this strong,  resilient community. Thank you  again for                                                                    
     the opportunity to speak on  this bill I stand ready to                                                                    
     answer any questions from the committee.                                                                                   
9:35:09 AM                                                                                                                    
KIMBERLY   HANKINS,   Superintendent,  Lower   Kuskokwim   School                                                               
District,  testified in  support of  HB  147, [Version  B].   She                                                               
paraphrased  from the  following written  statement [included  in                                                               
the   committee  packet],   which  read   as  follows   [original                                                               
punctuation provided]:                                                                                                          
     Chair Drummond  and House Education  Committee members,                                                                    
     thank you for the time today  to speak in support of HB
     147, the  importance of growing  our own  teachers, and                                                                    
     supporting multiple pathways for teacher retention.                                                                        
     I'm  Kimberly  Hankins,  Superintendent  of  the  Lower                                                                    
     Kuskokwim School District.                                                                                                 
     This is  my second year serving  as superintendent, and                                                                    
     19th  year  with  the  district.  The  Lower  Kuskokwim                                                                    
     School District  is headquartered  in Bethel.  We serve                                                                    
     approximately  4,000  students  in 29  schools,  in  24                                                                    
     locations,  across  an  area  of  approximately  22,000                                                                    
     square miles.  Access to Bethel is  via Alaska Airlines                                                                    
     from Anchorage,  weather permitting, and access  to our                                                                    
     24  village locations  is via  small air  carrier, snow                                                                    
     machine, four-wheeler,  boat, ice  road in  the winter,                                                                    
     and/or dog sled.                                                                                                           
     Over  the  past decade  and  a  half, LKSD  has  worked                                                                    
     incredibly   hard  to   implement  language   immersion                                                                    
     models,  including  a  dual language  enrichment  model                                                                    
     program and  a Yupik immersion program  in the majority                                                                    
     of our schools. We  have worked to develop place-based,                                                                    
     culturally  rich   and  relevant   education  materials                                                                    
     aligned  to  state  standards,   in  both  English  and                                                                    
     Yugtun.  The  mission  of our  district  is  to  ensure                                                                    
     bilingual,   culturally   appropriate   and   effective                                                                    
     education for  all students, and  this is  supported by                                                                    
     the LKSD  Board of  Education's four Key  Measures, one                                                                    
     of    which   focuses    directly   on    Yup'ik/Cup'ik                                                                    
     In order  to staff our  schools, the district  looks to                                                                    
     develop teachers  from within  our communities  as well                                                                    
     as recruit  from around  our state  and nation.  In the                                                                    
     past few  years, our teacher turnover  rate has hovered                                                                    
     between 20-25%, and has been as high as 38%.                                                                               
     Unfortunately,  we  have seen  a  trend  over the  past                                                                    
     several years  in that  we are unable  to staff  all of                                                                    
     our  teacher   openings  despite   exhaustive,  ongoing                                                                    
     recruitment. This  places a burden on  the district and                                                                    
     on individual  schools that are not  fully staffed, but                                                                    
     ultimately underserves our  students. Teacher retention                                                                    
     and turnover has  been and continues to be  an issue we                                                                    
     face annually, both  here in Bethel and  in our village                                                                    
     Most recently,  the district has found  it increasingly                                                                    
     difficult to staff positions in  Bethel due to the high                                                                    
     cost of  living  rent and utilities  in particular; for                                                                    
     your reference  a gallon  of milk  in Bethel  is nearly                                                                    
     $9, apples can cost as  much as $4.99/pound, and an 18-                                                                    
     pack  of eggs  costs  over $6.00.  While  Bethel has  a                                                                    
     larger population  than surrounding villages,  it faces                                                                    
     similar  challenges  both  in teacher  recruitment  and                                                                    
     retention, and common  struggles associated with living                                                                    
     in   rural  Alaska.   (high  cost   of  rent,   housing                                                                    
     shortages, high cost of  utilities, access to services,                                                                    
     In  a  2021  study   titled  "Education  Retention  and                                                                    
     Turnover  in Alaska,"  published  by  the Institute  of                                                                    
     Education  Sciences   and  REL   [Regional  Educational                                                                    
     Laboratory]  Northwest at  Education  Northwest, it  is                                                                    
     stated  that educator  turnover  is  associated with  a                                                                    
     broad range  of negative  outcomes for students.  It is                                                                    
     also noted that rural schools  in Alaska continue to be                                                                    
     hit  hardest   by  turnover,  and  that   teachers  and                                                                    
     principals prepared outside Alaska  continue to be more                                                                    
     likely to turn over.                                                                                                       
9:39:05 AM                                                                                                                    
     In the  same study, the following  strategies are noted                                                                    
     for  improving educator  recruitment  and retention  in                                                                    
     -  Create  and  support  multiple  teacher  preparation                                                                    
     pathways  that  can  increase  the  supply  of  Alaska-                                                                    
     educated teachers, including grow-your-own programs                                                                        
     -  Increase incentives  for educators,  including loan-                                                                    
     forgiveness programs                                                                                                       
     For  more   than  a  decade  LKSD   has  developed  and                                                                    
     implemented our own  TEACH program as a  way to develop                                                                    
     local talent  and grow our  own teachers both as  a way                                                                    
     to meet  teacher turnover needs  and as a way  to staff                                                                    
     our  dual language  and  immersion  model schools.  Our                                                                    
     district commits hundreds of  thousands of dollars each                                                                    
     year  to this  program and  we have  numerous certified                                                                    
     teachers  who  have   completed  this  program  working                                                                    
     throughout the district.                                                                                                   
     Each year,  LKSD devotes a  significant amount  of time                                                                    
     and man-hours in developing new  hires and in educating                                                                    
     them  on district  programs, instructional  models, and                                                                    
     in helping them learn about  the culture of the region,                                                                    
     communities, and  students that  they serve. This  is a                                                                    
     continuous  cycle.  Locally  grown  teachers,  such  as                                                                    
     Madelene  Reichard,  are  incredibly valuable  in  that                                                                    
     they are  from the  region, they have  grown up  in the                                                                    
     culture, they  are familiar  with and  have connections                                                                    
     in our  communities, and they  serve as  excellent role                                                                    
     models and  mentors both for  our students and  our new                                                                    
     to  district  teachers.  They  are  familiar  with  the                                                                    
     familial   structures  found   in   our  region,   they                                                                    
     understand  the cultural  context of  our students  and                                                                    
     our  communities, they  enhance relationships  in their                                                                    
     schools and  greatly contribute  to school  climate and                                                                    
     Programs  that support  developing  local  talent    or                                                                    
     growing  your  own      and  teacher  loan  forgiveness                                                                    
     programs   are  critical   solutions  in   solving  the                                                                    
     education  retention  and  recruitment issue  faced  in                                                                    
     rural Alaska.                                                                                                              
9:41:44 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. HANKINS, in  response to Representative Prax,  stated that to                                                               
qualify  for the  [TEL] program  the recipient  must have  been a                                                               
resident of a  rural area when he/she applied.   In response to a                                                               
follow-up, she  stated that the  recipient would return  to teach                                                               
in a  rural area for four  years.  She asked  that Representative                                                               
Zulkosky confirm the requirements.                                                                                              
9:42:32 AM                                                                                                                    
MS. EFIRD,  in response to  Representative Prax, referred  to the                                                               
TEL information sheet in the  committee packet.  She stated that,                                                               
after five  years of teaching  in an  area defined as  rural, the                                                               
loan would be forgiven.                                                                                                         
9:43:06 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  ZULKOSKY,  in  response to  Representative  Prax,                                                               
answered that  the purpose of  the legislation is to  fulfill the                                                               
state's promise  to rural teachers, specifically  those in Bethel                                                               
and  Kodiak.   She stated  that  LKSD nominated  Ms. Reichard  to                                                               
receive  the loan  because she  intended  to pursue  a career  in                                                               
education  and  return  to  Bethel to  teach  in  the  community.                                                               
However, once  she applied for  loan forgiveness, because  of the                                                               
outdated  statute governing  the program,  she was  told she  was                                                               
ineligible.   She  stated  that Ms.  Reichard  brought the  issue                                                               
forward, but the legislation could help other teachers.                                                                         
9:44:32 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  ZULKOSKY, in  response to  a follow-up  question,                                                               
stated  that the  program is  no longer  utilized by  ACPE.   She                                                               
stated that  she and Ms.  Efird have had an  ongoing conversation                                                               
regarding  different  programs  for teacher  retention  in  rural                                                               
communities.   This legislation seeks  to remedy the  promise the                                                               
TEL  program made  to teachers  who  continue to  teach in  rural                                                               
Alaska,  but  due  to  the outdated  definition,  are  unable  to                                                               
qualify for  the forgiveness element.   These teachers  have paid                                                               
down their  loans under the  impression their community  would be                                                               
considered rural  because they were  nominated by a  rural school                                                               
9:45:57 AM                                                                                                                    
SEGUE  GRANT,  Vice  President,  National  Education  Association                                                               
Alaska Affiliate  (NEA-Alaska), testified  in support of  HB 147,                                                               
[Version B].   She provided  her Yup'ik name, Chagusak  (ph), and                                                               
stated  that public  education is  her career  and passion.   She                                                               
stated  that  she  has worked  in  LKSD  for  13  years.   As  an                                                               
itinerant  educator,  she travels  to  villages  in the  district                                                               
supporting other teachers  in their classrooms.   She offered her                                                               
gratitude to Representative  Zulkosky for introducing legislation                                                               
that would  fulfill the promises  made to educators  committed to                                                               
working  in  rural  Alaska.    She said  that  the  state  widely                                                               
promoted  the TEL  program years  ago.   To  attract students  in                                                               
rural  Alaska  to the  education  profession,  the state  offered                                                               
loans that would  be reduced or forgiven,  provided the recipient                                                               
return to work  in rural Alaska.  However,  school districts grew                                                               
in population  and no longer  fit under the definition  of rural.                                                               
She  continued  that the  unintended  consequence  makes the  TEL                                                               
recipients ineligible  for the loan forgiveness,  even though the                                                               
population of  the community was  within the definition  of rural                                                               
when the  teacher originally  applied for the  loan.   She stated                                                               
that the legislation  would allow a statutory  fix for applicants                                                               
on  the  original terms  of  the  TEL  program, adding  that  the                                                               
retroactivity clause is critical to  fulfill the promise to those                                                               
who applied for the loan  under the impression they would qualify                                                               
for loan forgiveness.   She stated that  attracting and retaining                                                               
teachers to rural  Alaska has been a challenge for  decades.  She                                                               
stated  that  NEA-Alaska supports  the  initiatives  to create  a                                                               
strong cohort of teachers who  intend to return to communities to                                                               
pass on  their knowledge.   She argued  that students  learn best                                                               
from educators  who share their  values, history,  and connection                                                               
to the  land.  She continued  that educators who return  to their                                                               
home to teach  are less likely to seek a  job in another district                                                               
or state.   She stated that continuity  has profound implications                                                               
on generations  of young  Alaskans.  She  urged the  committee to                                                               
support the legislation, as it  is important to her community and                                                               
to the teachers.                                                                                                                
9:50:42 AM                                                                                                                    
LISA PARADY,  PhD, Executive Director,  Alaska Council  of School                                                               
Administrators (ACSA),  testified in support of  HB 147, [Version                                                               
B].   She  shared  that  ACSA is  the  umbrella organization  for                                                               
superintendents,  elementary  and  secondary  principals,  school                                                               
business officials, and  "all hard-working school administrators"                                                               
in Alaska.   Referencing the importance of the  first sentence in                                                               
the  sponsor  statement, she  read  the  from the  statement,  as                                                               
follows,  "Teacher  recruitment  and retention  pose  significant                                                               
challenges to  Alaska schools, but  the issue is  most pronounced                                                               
in  rural communities.   Overtime,  this can  be a  contributing,                                                               
systemic  factor to  success and,  most importantly,  achievement                                                               
gaps  experienced  in  Alaska  classrooms."     She  stated  that                                                               
preparing, attracting,  and retaining qualified educators  is one                                                               
of  the   highest  priorities  for  ACSA,   NEA-Alaska,  and  the                                                               
Association of  Alaska School Boards.   She stated that  to solve                                                               
the  crisis there  must be  intentionality.   Retaining effective                                                               
educators  is  imperative  to increase  student  achievement  and                                                               
eliminating academic disparity  for all of Alaska  students.  She                                                               
expressed gratitude to the committee  for looking at the research                                                               
that  supports  these  ideas.   She  stated  that  ACSA  strongly                                                               
encourages  the  development  of statewide  programs  that  would                                                               
prepare,  attract, and  retain  high-quality, diverse  educators.                                                               
She  added that  ACSA recommends  funding for  a robust  educator                                                               
pipeline, creating  incentives for  graduates to stay  in Alaska.                                                               
She  commented that  while  the  Regional Educational  Laboratory                                                               
Northwest  was doing  research  in Alaska,  a  new definition  of                                                               
rural had to be applied.  Due  to the remoteness of the state the                                                               
federal government's definition of rural "did not fit."                                                                         
9:54:29 AM                                                                                                                    
DR. PARADY  stated that  the Center  for Alaska  Education Policy                                                               
Research and  the Institute  of Social  and Economic  Research at                                                               
the  University of  Alaska, Anchorage,  published  an article  on                                                               
February 24, 2022,  that addressed teacher turnover  in Alaska as                                                               
the  "perfect  storm."    The article  related  that  Alaska  has                                                               
traditionally recruited  teachers from  the contiguous U.S.   The                                                               
article  also related  that  there are  fewer  people going  into                                                               
teacher preparation  programs across the country.   Because there                                                               
is  a  high  demand  and a  diminished  supply,  competition  for                                                               
teachers from within  Alaska and across the  country is elevated.                                                               
She  stated the  research  suggests Alaska  is  in a  significant                                                               
crisis.  She  compared the situation to a weave  of cloth made up                                                               
of multiple crisscrossed strands.   She said that the state needs                                                               
multiple strands  to fix the  educator staffing crisis,  with one                                                               
of the  strands being  loan forgiveness.   She stated  that ACSA,                                                               
not only supports  the bill, but encourages  reconsideration of a                                                               
comparable [TEL]  program for  the entire  state.   She expressed                                                               
the belief  that staffing  classrooms with  high-quality, locally                                                               
grown educators would support the  weave of cloth.  She expressed                                                               
hope that  the committee would  support the legislation,  as well                                                               
as look  at solutions to  attract and retain  high-quality staff.                                                               
She  offered  her  thanks  to  the  committee  for  its  work  in                                                               
supporting public education.                                                                                                    
9:57:10 AM                                                                                                                    
CO-CHAIR  DRUMMOND  requested  that  Dr. Parady  provide  to  the                                                               
committee  the  statistics  on   teacher  retention  and  student                                                               
performance.  She  stated that these statistics  help explain the                                                               
importance of retaining teachers.                                                                                               
9:57:49 AM                                                                                                                    
DR.  PARADY  answered  that  she  did  not  have  the  statistics                                                               
available but  could supply  them at  a later  date.   She stated                                                               
that a  study by  the Institute of  Social and  Economic Research                                                               
found the lowest achievement in  reading proficiency was found in                                                               
the districts  with the highest  teacher turnover;  the districts                                                               
with the lowest  teacher turnover had the  highest achievement in                                                               
reading proficiency.                                                                                                            
9:59:01 AM                                                                                                                    
DR. PARADY, in  response to Representative Prax,  agreed that the                                                               
legislation only  addresses the  past.  She  stated that,  due to                                                               
circumstances outside of their control,  teachers were reliant on                                                               
a program  that shifted.   She expressed hope that  the committee                                                               
would support  future programs for  locally grown  educators with                                                               
loan forgiveness.                                                                                                               
10:01:11 AM                                                                                                                   
MS. EFIRD  clarified that ASLC  did provide forgiveness  for over                                                               
300 of the  loans.  She responded to  Representative Hopkins that                                                               
ACPE  absolutely agrees  the number  one priority  for Alaska  is                                                               
recruitment  and retainment  of teachers.   She  stated that  the                                                               
spirit of the legislation shows a good faith effort by the                                                                      
10:03:05 AM                                                                                                                   
CO-CHAIR DRUMMOND announced that HB 147 was held over.                                                                          
10:04:26 AM                                                                                                                   
The committee took a brief at-ease at 10:04 a.m.                                                                                
10:05:07 AM                                                                                                                   
There being no further business before the committee, the House                                                                 
Education Standing Committee meeting was adjourned at 10:05 a.m.                                                                

Document Name Date/Time Subjects
HB 147 FN EED ACPE 1.7.22.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 147
HB 147 Sponsor Statement ver. B.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 147
HB 147 Supporting Document_ Education Retention and Turnover in Alaska.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 147
HB 147 Supporting Document_Teacher Education Loan Program Background.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 147
HB0147 work draft Version B.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 147
HB0147A.PDF HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 147
HB 147 Sectional Analysis ver. B.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 147
HB 147 Committee Packet HEDC 3.11.22.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 147
HB 312 EED SSA 2.10.22.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HL&C 4/4/2022 3:15:00 PM
HB 312
HB 312 Sectional Analysis.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 312
HB 312 Committee Packet 3.11.22.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HB 312
HB 312 Sponsor Statement.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HL&C 4/4/2022 3:15:00 PM
HB 312
HB 312 Supporting Document - Brookings.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HL&C 4/4/2022 3:15:00 PM
HB 312
HB 312 Supporting Document - Gaddy.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HL&C 4/4/2022 3:15:00 PM
HB 312
HB 312 Supporting Document - Glamour.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HL&C 4/4/2022 3:15:00 PM
HB 312
HB0312A.PDF HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
HL&C 4/4/2022 3:15:00 PM
HB 312
CS for SB 72 (CRA).PDF HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
CS for SB72 EDC.PDF HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
CS for SB 72 FIN.PDF HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB 72 Committee Packet HEDC 3.11.22.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB 72 FN EED SSA 2.9.22.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB 72 Oppose 031022.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB 72 Support 031022.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB0072A.PDF HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Bill Text verison D.PDF HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Fiscal Note 1.12.2022.PDF HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Research 128-Test-Questions.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Research Forbes_NeglectingCivics_2.21.2020.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Research Links-to-Resources.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Research RAND_Focus-on-Civic-Ed 12.8.2020.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Research WSJ_3.2.2021.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Sectional version D.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72
SB072 Civics Sponsor Statement 2.10.2021.pdf HEDC 3/11/2022 8:00:00 AM
SB 72