Legislature(2011 - 2012)BARNES 124

03/22/2011 08:00 AM House COMMUNITY & REGIONAL AFFAIRS

Download Mp3. <- Right click and save file as

Audio Topic
08:05:06 AM Start
08:05:20 AM Overview: Emergency Disaster Preparedness in Alaska
09:36:35 AM Adjourn
* first hearing in first committee of referral
+ teleconferenced
= bill was previously heard/scheduled
+ Overviews on Emergency Disaster Preparedness TELECONFERENCED
in Alaska by:
- Dept. of Military & Veterans' Affairs, Division
of Homeland Security
- Dept. of Health & Social Services
- City & Borough of Juneau Emergency Program
                    ALASKA STATE LEGISLATURE                                                                                  
    HOUSE COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL AFFAIRS STANDING COMMITTEE                                                                   
                         March 22, 2011                                                                                         
                           8:05 a.m.                                                                                            
MEMBERS PRESENT                                                                                                               
Representative Cathy Engstrom Munoz, Chair                                                                                      
Representative Neal Foster, Vice Chair                                                                                          
Representative Alan Austerman                                                                                                   
Representative Alan Dick                                                                                                        
Representative Dan Saddler                                                                                                      
Representative Sharon Cissna                                                                                                    
Representative Berta Gardner                                                                                                    
MEMBERS ABSENT                                                                                                                
All members present                                                                                                             
COMMITTEE CALENDAR                                                                                                            
OVERVIEW: EMERGENCY DISASTER PREPAREDNESS IN ALASKA                                                                             
     - HEARD                                                                                                                    
PREVIOUS COMMITTEE ACTION                                                                                                     
No previous action to record                                                                                                    
WITNESS REGISTER                                                                                                              
JOE MCLAUGHLIN, MD, MPH, State Epidemiologist                                                                                   
Division of Public Health                                                                                                       
Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS)                                                                                 
POSITION STATEMENT:  Provided a presentation entitled "The                                                                    
Japanese Nuclear Crisis: What it Means for Alaska."                                                                             
CHRIS LABORDE, Preparedness Program Manager                                                                                     
Division of Public Health                                                                                                       
Department of Health and Social Services                                                                                        
Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                               
POSITION STATEMENT:  During the presentation, answered                                                                        
KRISTIN RYAN, Director                                                                                                          
Division of Environmental Health                                                                                                
Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC)                                                                                  
Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                               
POSITION STATEMENT:  During presentations, answered questions.                                                                
DR. BERND JILLY, PhD, MT (ASCP), Chief                                                                                          
Public Health Laboratories                                                                                                      
Division of Public Health                                                                                                       
Department of Health and Social Services                                                                                        
Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                               
POSITION STATEMENT:  During presentation, answered questions.                                                                 
CLYDE PEARCE, Radiology Health Specialist/Chief                                                                                 
Public Health Laboratories                                                                                                      
Division of Public Health                                                                                                       
Department of Health and Social Services                                                                                        
Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                               
POSITION STATEMENT:  During presentation, answered questions.                                                                 
ALICE EDWARDS, Director                                                                                                         
Division of Air Quality                                                                                                         
Department of Environmental Conservation                                                                                        
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  During presentation, answered questions.                                                                 
MAJOR GENERAL TOM KATKUS, Adjutant General, Commissioner                                                                        
Department of Military & Veterans' Affairs (DMVA)                                                                               
Fort Richardson, Alaska                                                                                                         
POSITION STATEMENT:  Provided comments regarding Alaska's                                                                     
tsunami modeling and emergency preparedness.                                                                                    
MIKE O'HARE, Deputy Director                                                                                                    
Division of Homeland Security and Emergency Management                                                                          
Department of Military & Veterans' Affairs (DMVA)                                                                               
Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                               
POSITION STATEMENT:  Provided a presentation of Alaska's tsunami                                                              
modeling and emergency preparedness.                                                                                            
TOM MATTICE, Emergency Programs Coordinator & Avalanche                                                                         
City & Borough of Juneau                                                                                                        
Juneau, Alaska                                                                                                                  
POSITION STATEMENT:  Reviewed the efforts in Southeast to                                                                     
achieve emergency preparedness and response.                                                                                    
ACTION NARRATIVE                                                                                                              
8:05:06 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR  CATHY  ENGSTROM  MUNOZ  called  the  House  Community  and                                                             
Regional  Affairs Standing  Committee  meeting to  order at  8:05                                                               
a.m.    Representatives Dick,  Saddler,  Cissna,  and Munoz  were                                                               
present  at   the  call  to   order.     Representatives  Foster,                                                               
Austerman, and Gardner arrived as the meeting was in progress.                                                                  
^Overview: Emergency Disaster Preparedness in Alaska                                                                            
      Overview: Emergency Disaster Preparedness in Alaska                                                                   
8:05:20 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR MUNOZ  announced that the  only order of business  would be                                                               
an overview of emergency disaster preparedness in Alaska.                                                                       
8:05:55 AM                                                                                                                    
JOE  MCLAUGHLIN,  MD,  MPH,  State  Epidemiologist,  Division  of                                                               
Public Health, began by saying:                                                                                                 
     If they're only three things that I can impart on you                                                                      
        all today, these would be the three that I would                                                                        
       1) There is no immediate or anticipated threat for                                                                       
     harmful levels of radiation to reach Alaska;                                                                               
     2) Alaska's seafood is unlikely to be affected;                                                                            
       3) This is an important reminder that all Alaskans                                                                       
       should assemble a home emergency kit and a family                                                                        
     response plan.                                                                                                             
MR. MCLAUGHLIN  then reviewed a  framework that provides  some of                                                               
the key  response measures for  which public health  agencies are                                                               
responsible  during   a  radiation  emergency.     Public  health                                                               
agencies  have  a   duty  to  inform  the   public,  health  care                                                               
providers,  and  others regarding  steps  that  can be  taken  to                                                               
prevent undue  radiation exposure  during a  radiation emergency.                                                               
Public health agencies also have  a responsibility to protect the                                                               
public from radiation  exposure through providing recommendations                                                               
about   shelter-in-place  and/or   evacuation,  distribution   of                                                               
radiation   medications,    and   restricting    consumption   of                                                               
contaminated  food.   Further responsibilities  of public  health                                                               
agencies  include decreasing  psychological effects  of radiation                                                               
exposure as  well as performing  long-term follow-up  for exposed                                                               
persons,  which includes  case  identification  and tracking  and                                                               
access to  care.  To  date DHSS  has responded to  numerous media                                                               
requests  and issued  many press  releases  and messages  through                                                               
social media.   The  department has  also issued  an epidemiology                                                               
bulletin,  which  has been  distributed  to  over 900  people  in                                                               
Alaska.   The aforementioned was  primarily geared  toward health                                                               
care providers.   The message has  been the same through  all the                                                               
media outlets.  The principal  messages have been that there's no                                                               
anticipated threat to the health  of Alaskans; Alaskans shouldn't                                                               
take  potassium  iodide  at this  time;  ongoing  monitoring  and                                                               
communicating with  local, state, and federal  partners regarding                                                               
the situation; and  the incident in Japan serves  as an important                                                               
reminder to  be prepared  for an  emergency.   In terms  of being                                                               
prepared for an  emergency the slide entitled  "What can Alaskans                                                               
do to  be prepared for  an emergency?" lists the  items necessary                                                               
to create a home emergency supply  kit.  He also pointed out that                                                               
Alaskans should create a vehicle  emergency supply kit, develop a                                                               
family  response plan,  and practice  the plan.   With  regard to                                                               
Alaska's  radiation  monitoring,   Alaska's  monitoring  stations                                                               
continue to report normal background  levels of radiation.  There                                                               
are  five   Environmental  Protection  Agency   (EPA)  monitoring                                                               
stations  in  Alaska.   The  three  stations that  are  currently                                                               
reporting  are in  Anchorage, Fairbanks,  and Juneau.   He  noted                                                               
that  one station  in  Juneau is  specifically  geared to  report                                                               
gamma radiation information.  The  three monitoring stations that                                                               
will soon be  reporting are located in Dutch  Harbor, Juneau, and                                                               
Nome.  The recently installed  monitor in Juneau will report beta                                                               
radiation  information.   Mr. McLaughlin  said that  if radiation                                                               
levels  increase  substantially,  the Division  of  Health  would                                                               
measure  specific   isotopes  to  determine  whether   steps  are                                                               
necessary  to  protect  the  public's  health.    He  noted  that                                                               
available  data can  be found  at the  DHSS home  page.   He then                                                               
turned to the topic of protecting  the food supply; the U.S. Food                                                               
&  Drug   Administration  (USFDA)   is  closely   monitoring  the                                                               
situation.  In  fact, USFDA is performing  increased and targeted                                                               
product sampling at the border.   He highlighted that less than 4                                                               
percent of  U.S. imported  foods come  from Japan.   Furthermore,                                                               
current  models indicate  that U.S.  fishing  waters will  remain                                                               
safe.   He shared a  quote from a recent  USFDA fax:   "The great                                                               
quantity of  water in the  Pacific Ocean rapidly  and effectively                                                               
dilutes radioactive material,  so fish and seafood  are likely to                                                               
be unaffected."                                                                                                                 
8:11:24 AM                                                                                                                    
MR.  MCLAUGHLIN  then directed  the  committee's  attention to  a                                                               
table  that  provides  information regarding  various  levels  of                                                               
radiation exposure and the effects  of those levels.  He informed                                                               
the committee that the average  amount of radiation absorbed by a                                                               
person  in a  day  is  0.0016 Roentgen  equivalent  man (rem)  of                                                               
radiation whereas a chest x-ray will  expose a person to 0.04 rem                                                               
of  radiation.    He  further informed  the  committee  that  the                                                               
average amount  of radiation absorbed  by a  person in a  year is                                                               
0.6 rem.   In comparison,  the maximum radiation reported  at the                                                               
main gate of the Fukushima Daiichi  power plant on March 15th was                                                               
40 rem  while the amount  of radiation  reported in Tokyo  on the                                                               
same day is 0.00008 rem.                                                                                                        
8:12:39 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR  MUNOZ  asked  if  there is  updated  information  for  the                                                               
[Japanese Nuclear Crisis].                                                                                                      
MR.  MCLAUGHLIN replied  no, but  offered  to provide  it to  the                                                               
committee [when available].                                                                                                     
8:12:53 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. MCLAUGHLIN  then informed the committee  that exposure levels                                                               
of 5-50 is where signs of  acute radiation sickness occur as well                                                               
as  slightly   increased  risk  of  malformations,   growth,  and                                                               
intelligence  quotient (IQ)  impacts, and  failure for  embryo to                                                               
implant.   In children  and adults, such  exposure can  result in                                                               
changes in  blood chemistry,  such as a  decrease in  white blood                                                               
cell counts.   The  50-90 rem  range is  where symptoms  of acute                                                               
radiation  exposure, including  nausea,  fatigue, vomiting,  hair                                                               
loss, and  diarrhea, occur.   In terms of  radiation medications,                                                               
Mr. McLaughlin told the committee  that radiation medications are                                                               
included in  the strategic national  stockpile.   The medications                                                               
of potassium iodide, Prussian blue,  and DTPA are used to prevent                                                               
internal exposure  to radiation.  The  medications of antiemetic,                                                               
neupogen, and antibiotics  are meant to help  decrease the impact                                                               
of radiation exposure.  The  aforementioned medications will only                                                               
be  deployed  if  there  is   a  "credible  threat."    The  U.S.                                                               
Department of Health  and Human Services (USDHHS) has  said:  "No                                                               
public  health   risks  are  expected  in   the  United  States."                                                               
Therefore,  there  is  no  credible   threat  and  the  strategic                                                               
national  stockpile  hasn't  been  deployed.    In  summary,  Mr.                                                               
McLaughlin related the following:                                                                                               
   · There is no anticipated threat of harmful radiation                                                                        
     exposure to Alaskans at this time                                                                                          
   · Alaska's seafood is unlikely to be affected                                                                                
   · All Alaskans should be prepared for disasters                                                                              
   · More information is available at www.hss.state.ak.us                                                                       
8:15:15 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER inquired  as to size of  the stockpile for                                                               
radiation medications.                                                                                                          
8:15:55 AM                                                                                                                    
CHRIS LABORDE,  Preparedness Program Manager, Division  of Public                                                               
Health, Department  of Health and Social  Services, answered that                                                               
the  Centers  for  Disease Control  and  Prevention  (CDC)  won't                                                               
release any information  regarding the location or  amount of the                                                               
strategic national stockpile.                                                                                                   
8:16:17 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  FOSTER,  recalling  the testimony  that  Alaska's                                                               
fish and  seafood is  "unlikely" to be  impacted by  the Japanese                                                               
Nuclear Crisis,  asked if there  is any  way in which  to monitor                                                               
whether Alaska's seafood is impacted.                                                                                           
MR. MCLAUGHLIN deferred to Ms. Ryan.                                                                                            
8:17:14 AM                                                                                                                    
KRISTIN  RYAN,   Director,  Division  of   Environmental  Health,                                                               
Department of Environmental Conservation  (DEC), related that DEC                                                               
is working closely with the  USFDA to perform monitoring in order                                                               
to  develop  a  monitoring  protocol that  can  be  relied  upon.                                                               
However, the protocol hasn't been developed yet.                                                                                
8:18:13 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE FOSTER  requested periodic updates on  the [safety                                                               
of Alaska's  seafood].   He noted  that Western  Alaska residents                                                               
are  very concerned,  especially  due to  their  reliance on  the                                                               
fishing industry.                                                                                                               
8:18:45 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER asked  if there are any  global impacts or                                                               
impacts to the seafood in Japan's waters.                                                                                       
MS. RYAN stated  that the USFDA is Alaska's  main partner because                                                               
it regulates all food imported into  the U.S.  About 4 percent of                                                               
the  foods [imported]  to the  U.S. are  from Japan.   The  USFDA                                                               
performs random sampling  and monitoring of food  that enters the                                                               
U.S.  Obviously, the USFDA  will step up its radiation monitoring                                                               
for  food from  Japan.   At  this point,  no  food shipments  are                                                               
coming from Japan, which will likely be the case for some time.                                                                 
8:20:15 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  CISSNA  questioned   whether  there  are  already                                                               
websites  that  are  monitoring   the  impacts  of  radiation  on                                                               
MR. MCLAUGHLIN deferred to Dr. JILLY.                                                                                           
8:22:00 AM                                                                                                                    
DR.   BERND  JILLY,   PhD,  MT   (ASCP),  Chief,   Public  Health                                                               
Laboratories,  Division of  Public Health,  Department of  Health                                                               
and Social  Services, informed  the committee  that the  EPA does                                                               
have monitors in  the ocean.  Since it's a  federal program, it's                                                               
beyond  the  Alaska State  Laboratories'  purview.   However,  he                                                               
echoed  Mr. McLaughlin's  testimony  that Alaska  does have  land                                                               
monitoring  stations in  order to  provide an  early warning  for                                                               
what's in  the atmosphere.   With regard to ocean  monitoring, he                                                               
deferred to  the National Oceanic and  Atmospheric Administration                                                               
(NOAA)  or  other  federal  agencies.   In  further  response  to                                                               
Representative Cissna,  Dr. Jilly confirmed that  the Division of                                                               
Public Health website,  www.hss.state.ak.us, provides information                                                               
[regarding  the state's  land monitoring  efforts].   The website                                                               
relates  the historical  average  and maximum  for this  calendar                                                               
year as well as the  current readings of the Anchorage monitoring                                                               
station.   The  division's website  also includes  a link  to the                                                               
EPA's website that  has a graph that updates 15  times a day from                                                               
Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau.                                                                                               
8:24:33 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE   SADDLER  inquired   as  to   the  risk   to  the                                                               
agricultural industry in Alaska.                                                                                                
MS. RYAN  said that although  the state  does test food  for many                                                               
contaminants,  it   doesn't  have   the  capacity  to   test  for                                                               
radiation.   However, DEC is  monitoring the air  deposition that                                                               
EPA measures.   If  there is  a point  when deposition  occurs in                                                               
Alaska,  then DEC  would work  with its  federal counterparts  to                                                               
perform sampling  of Alaska's agricultural  products.   She noted                                                               
that the  majority of food  produced in  Alaska is from  the sea,                                                               
and  therefore that's  DEC's emphasis.   Since  no deposition  is                                                               
being  seen  at this  point,  there  aren't necessarily  concerns                                                               
regarding contamination.  Ms. Ryan  mentioned that as part of the                                                               
USFDA's  radiation  monitoring  throughout the  U.S.,  the  USFDA                                                               
randomly  monitors milk  and meat  throughout the  U.S., save  in                                                               
Alaska.     The  aforementioned  information  is   available  and                                                               
periodically updated on the USFDA website.                                                                                      
8:26:45 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER  remarked that  in case  of a  disaster in                                                               
Alaska, Alaska may  regret that it doesn't produce  more food for                                                               
its consumption.                                                                                                                
8:27:03 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE FOSTER inquired as  to the difference between beta                                                               
and  gamma radiation.   He  also inquired  as to  when the  Dutch                                                               
Harbor, Juneau, and  Nome sites will be reporting and  will it be                                                               
in the same format as the existing reporting sites.                                                                             
8:27:58 AM                                                                                                                    
CLYDE  PEARCE, Radiology  Health Specialist/Chief,  Public Health                                                               
Laboratories,  Division of  Public Health,  Department of  Health                                                               
and Social Services, explained that  gamma radiation is more like                                                               
x-rays  in  that  it's  pure   energy,  whereas  beta  and  alpha                                                               
radiation are  particles of  matter.   Therefore, there  could be                                                               
fall out with beta or alpha radiation.                                                                                          
8:28:34 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  FOSTER   recalled  that  Bethel  may   receive  a                                                               
radiation monitoring  station.  He  then inquired as to  how soon                                                               
the  Dutch Harbor,  Juneau (gamma),  and Nome  radiation stations                                                               
will  be reporting  and  will  it be  the  same  format as  those                                                               
stations currently reporting.                                                                                                   
DR.  JILLY said  that's  hard to  answer  because [the  stations]                                                               
belong to  EPA and there  are a  number of technical  issues that                                                               
must  be overcome  and the  appropriate quality  control must  be                                                               
achieved prior to reporting data.                                                                                               
8:29:51 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE DICK said  that although he has  confidence in the                                                               
state's  agencies  and organizations  [that  would  respond to  a                                                               
disaster],  he  doesn't  have  confidence  in  the  like  federal                                                               
agencies.    He  pointed  to  the  Federal  Emergency  Management                                                               
Agency's (FEMA)  response to Hurricane  Katrina as an  example of                                                               
his lack of  confidence in the federal  agencies.  Representative                                                               
Dick then  requested the state  agencies to be hyper  vigilant on                                                               
behalf  of the  state and  to validate  the information  obtained                                                               
[from  federal agencies]  because he  didn't believe  the message                                                               
would be  different regardless  of the  status of  the situation.                                                               
He  then echoed  Representative Saddler's  comment regarding  the                                                               
need for Alaska  to produce more of its food  as he recalled that                                                               
there is only  three to six days  worth of food in  Alaska at any                                                               
given time.   Representative  Dick then  explained that  the slow                                                               
growing lichen absorbs radiation  and has radiation levels higher                                                               
than any other  plant.  The aforementioned has  resulted in those                                                               
who  eat caribou  to stop  eating  the caribou  liver, where  the                                                               
radiation concentration  is the  worst.  Therefore,  he suggested                                                               
that the state start sampling lichen and caribou livers.                                                                        
MS. RYAN said that she  is familiar with the concentration issues                                                               
of lichen.   She suggested  that DEC  would work with  the Alaska                                                               
Department of  Fish &  Game (ADF&G) on  this matter  because it's                                                               
more equipped  to evaluate the  health and safety  of subsistence                                                               
species.   She offered to discuss  Representative Dick's concerns                                                               
with ADF&G and inquire of ADF&G's sampling efforts.                                                                             
8:33:07 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE CISSNA  recalled past Health Caucus  meetings when                                                               
mutual  aid agreements  were discussed.   Mutual  aid agreements,                                                               
which ensure [various agencies  are] networking and communicating                                                               
with each  other, are  important in fields  outside of  health as                                                               
well.   However, she  opined that it  feels like  such networking                                                               
and  communication  is  going  downhill  in  regard  to  reaching                                                               
communities.  She then inquired as  to the work going on in terms                                                               
of [networking and communicating] with respect to preparedness.                                                                 
MS. LABORDE  informed the committee that  the Preparedness Office                                                               
has  a community  outreach program.   The  office along  with the                                                               
Division of  Homeland Security and Emergency  Management (DHS&EM)                                                               
and  The  Alaska  Native  Tribal  Health  Consortium  go  to  the                                                               
communities to answer their questions and deliver their message.                                                                
8:35:51 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR  MUNOZ  requested receipt  of  updated  information on  the                                                               
radiation readings as it becomes available.                                                                                     
MR. MCLAUGHLIN agreed to do so.                                                                                                 
8:36:29 AM                                                                                                                    
ALICE EDWARDS,  Director, Division of Air  Quality, Department of                                                               
Environmental Conservation,  addressed the  latest status  on the                                                               
three additional monitoring  stations.  The Dutch  Harbor site is                                                               
currently operational  and transmitting data, which  will soon be                                                               
found  on the  EPA website  and the  Division of  Public Health's                                                               
website also.   The Nome monitor was damaged  during shipment and                                                               
a  replacement monitor  should've  arrived yesterday.   The  Nome                                                               
station  is in  the installation  process.   Although the  Juneau                                                               
monitor has been  shipped, set up, and is  collecting samples, it                                                               
can't transmit real-time data until a  new cable is received.  In                                                               
response  to Chair  Munoz,  Ms. Edwards  said  that the  existing                                                               
monitoring stations aren't showing  abnormal levels of radiation,                                                               
rather they're showing normal background levels of radiation.                                                                   
8:38:47 AM                                                                                                                    
MAJOR  GENERAL   TOM  KATKUS,  Adjutant   General,  Commissioner,                                                               
Department of  Military & Veterans' Affairs  (DMVA), related that                                                               
it's a  privilege to serve in  uniform and to be  thanked for his                                                               
service.  He then acknowledged  and thanked the first responders,                                                               
particularly  those  in  Alaska because  any  emergency  response                                                               
efforts start  locally.  The  Department of Military  & Veterans'                                                               
Affairs  is  responsible  for the  homeland  security  management                                                               
function that  synchronizes all the first  responders' efforts to                                                               
address an  emergency.  The goal  is to have an  efficient, fast,                                                               
effective,  and coordinated  response from  all.   Therefore, the                                                               
DMVA  starts  well   in  advance  of  the   disaster  to  prepare                                                               
scenarios,  train, exercise,  and  communicate  the message  such                                                               
that  it's  a singular  message  to  assure confidence  from  the                                                               
public.    Furthermore,  DMVA's efforts  are  coordinated  in  an                                                               
escalated  manner  through the  various  resources  the U.S.  can                                                               
bring to bear  on a problem.  Major General  Katkus then reviewed                                                               
the real-life scenario of the  earthquake and tsunami in Japan on                                                               
March  10th that  illustrates the  synchronized response  efforts                                                               
performed in Alaska.                                                                                                            
8:44:17 AM                                                                                                                    
MIKE O'HARE,  Deputy Director, Division of  Homeland Security and                                                               
Emergency Management, Department of  Military & Veterans' Affairs                                                               
(DMVA), began by informing the  committee that the division plans                                                               
for   all  hazards,   including  floods,   avalanches,  tsunamis,                                                               
etcetera.  He  referred to [the division's model]  as an effects-                                                               
based  model that  operates in  a collaborative  partnership with                                                               
state and federal agencies to  bring all resources forward during                                                               
any disaster  in Alaska.   The division, he  emphasized, supports                                                               
the  local   communities.    Mr.   O'Hare  then  turned   to  his                                                               
presentation  and reiterated  that it's  all about  partnerships.                                                               
With regard  to tsunamis,  the program  is comprised  of multiple                                                               
state and  federal agencies, including  the University  of Alaska                                                               
Geophysical  Institute,  the  Alaska Geological  and  Geophysical                                                               
Surveys Division, as  well as many others.  He  noted that he and                                                               
his  staff   receive  alerts  for  earthquakes   over  a  certain                                                               
magnitude on a  daily basis.  Mr. O'Hare  echoed earlier comments                                                               
that  staff work  as a  team  to provide  updated information  to                                                               
every community in Alaska.   Relay systems, which are fairly fail                                                               
safe, are used.  He then  referred to the slide entitled "Distant                                                               
Threat,"  which is  a map  that specifies  the tsunami  hazard by                                                               
community.   All the coastal  communities face a  distant tsunami                                                               
threat, such  as experienced  March 10th.   There are  also local                                                               
tsunamis that arise due to a  local threat such as a catastrophic                                                               
earthquake; these  are tsunamis for  which there is no  notice of                                                               
the  impending  emergency.   The  next  slide  entitled  "Warning                                                               
Sirens  and TsunamiReady  Communities," is  a map  that specifies                                                               
the communities that  are prepared for a tsunami  and/or have had                                                               
a  siren  installed   since  2006.    The   seven  tsunami  ready                                                               
communities are:  Seward, Homer,  Kodiak, Sitka, Valdez, Yakutat,                                                               
and  Sand  Point.    Unalaska, Cordova,  and  Whittier  are  just                                                               
completing  their  requirements.   Other  vulnerable  communities                                                               
being considered  for tsunami ready community  [status], which is                                                               
voluntary,  are Cold  Bay,  King Cove,  and Saint  Paul.   To  be                                                               
tsunami ready  a community must  establish a  24-hour operational                                                               
center and warning  point; have more than one way  to receive the                                                               
tsunami  warning  signals; and  develop  a  formal tsunami  plan,                                                               
which  includes holding  several exercises.   He  noted that  the                                                               
tsunami plan is updated every three years.                                                                                      
8:51:31 AM                                                                                                                    
MR.   O'HARE  moved   on  to   the   slide  entitled   "Community                                                               
Notification Call  Map," which identifies  the various  zones for                                                               
tsunamis.     Depending   upon   the   modeling  information,   a                                                               
prioritization  for the  zones is  established, contact  to those                                                               
priority zones is made, and  procedures are engaged.  Ultimately,                                                               
every zone  is contacted.   He reviewed how the  process actually                                                               
occurs.    He  then  turned   attention  to  the  slide  entitled                                                               
"Inundation  Maps,"  which  uses  Seward  as  an  example.    The                                                               
Division  of Homeland  Security  and Emergency  Management has  a                                                               
tsunami  mapping   team,  which   is  comprised  of   the  Alaska                                                               
Earthquake   Information   Center,   the   previously   mentioned                                                               
geological  and  geophysical  entities   as  well  as  the  local                                                               
communities.    He  indicated  that   using  the  geological  and                                                               
geophysical information  as well as the  local knowledge provides                                                               
a reasonable  understanding where  the inundation will  occur and                                                               
the  high  ground  will  be.   The  aforementioned  provides  the                                                               
ability to develop the evacuation plans.   He then shared a slide                                                               
entitled  "Hazard  Mapping,"  which  uses   a  map  of  Homer  to                                                               
illustrate the  inundation path.   Mr.  O'Hare then  reviewed the                                                               
various  warning  sirens  utilized in  the  various  communities,                                                               
which  range  from  a  simple   siren  to  a  siren  that  allows                                                               
programmable and manual voice communication.   The type chosen by                                                               
a community is based on  the community and the funding available.                                                               
The  funding for  these  siren systems  is  through the  National                                                               
Tsunami  Hazard  Mitigation  Program, the  FEMA  Homeland  Hazard                                                               
Mitigation   Grant  program,   State   Homeland  Security   Grant                                                               
programs, and the NOAA Remote Community Alert Systems.                                                                          
8:56:13 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER inquired  as to  how often  these systems                                                               
are tested or drills are held.                                                                                                  
MR. O'HARE answered that it's based  on the community as there is                                                               
no mandate.                                                                                                                     
8:56:56 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. O'HARE,  in response to  Representative Cissna,  informed the                                                               
committee that there are community  emergency managers in most of                                                               
the communities  in Alaska.   Part  of the  division's job  is to                                                               
provide resources,  materials, assistance,  and models  to ensure                                                               
that those  emergency managers educate,  train, and  exercise the                                                               
local  citizens.   If it's  a  hub community,  the [division  and                                                               
emergency  managers] work  to ensure  the satellite  villages are                                                               
involved with  the training,  education, and  outreach mitigation                                                               
opportunities   or  are   used   as   an  evacuation   community.                                                               
Basically, it's  dependent upon the environment.   Therefore, Mr.                                                               
O'Hare  opined   that  throughout   there  are  leaders   in  the                                                               
communities.  Although  they may not be  the designated emergency                                                               
managers,  they are  counted on  and included  in the  education,                                                               
training, and preparedness regime  in order to ensure communities                                                               
are better  prepared.   As mentioned  earlier, it's  performed in                                                               
partnership  with various  other agencies,  including DHSS,  DEC,                                                               
and the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC).                                                                         
8:59:29 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  CISSNA  reminded  the committee  that  the  state                                                               
leads in  behavioral problems that  are preventable.   She opined                                                               
that everyone is the victim  of the poorest prepared.  Therefore,                                                               
she suggested that we have  to go beyond [emergency preparedness]                                                               
in order  to really make it  [as a state] because  economics need                                                               
to  be included.    She  then mentioned  the  problems with  out-                                                               
migration of communities.                                                                                                       
9:01:34 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. O'HARE,  continuing his presentation, reviewed  photos of the                                                               
various  warning sirens  in  various  communities, including  the                                                               
Kenai Peninsula Borough's mobile siren.   He then moved on to the                                                               
slide entitled "Tsunami Sign Program,"  which relates the various                                                               
signs.   The  next slide  entitled "Outreach  and Education"  has                                                               
photographs  of  the  "Quake  Cabin,"   which  is  an  earthquake                                                               
simulator cabin that  simulates a 5.0 earthquake  and what really                                                               
happens.  The  Quake Cabin is used at  schools, businesses, state                                                               
fairs, and safety events.   He then reviewed the various outreach                                                               
products  the  division  provides.    The  main  message  of  the                                                               
outreach products is:  "An educated  and aware public with a plan                                                               
of action  will be  able to  adapt to  any situation  and respond                                                               
accordingly."  "Our  mission is to outreach  and educate Alaskans                                                               
to be better  prepared for any disaster," he related.   He shared                                                               
a photograph  of the  Valdez tsunami  of 1964.   Mr.  O'Hare then                                                               
told  the  committee  that  no community  can  prepare  for  what                                                               
recently happened in Japan.   Therefore, the [goal] is to educate                                                               
citizens to  have a  plan, have  a survival  kit with  seven days                                                               
worth  of food,  water, and  medicine.   The next  slide entitled                                                               
"Hazards/Threats"  reviews  the  various  natural  disasters  and                                                               
threats, including terrorism  and the pandemic flu.   With regard                                                               
to the  slide entitled "Partnerships," he  reminded the committee                                                               
[first and  foremost] the division  serves the  local communities                                                               
and uses  partnerships to  do so.   In fact,  he stated  that the                                                               
division  is  working  well  with the  federal  government.    In                                                               
closing,  Mr.  O'Hare  said: "As  Alaskans,  as  individuals,  as                                                               
neighbors,  as community  leaders, as  state leaders,  please for                                                               
yourselves  and  for  your constituents  send  the  message  out:                                                               
'Have a  plan, build  a kit,  be informed, and  be ready.'"   The                                                               
following  website: www.ready.alaska.gov  will help  you identify                                                               
the materials necessary to make an emergency kit.                                                                               
9:07:08 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  DICK directed  attention  to  the slide  entitled                                                               
"Tsunami Notification Call," and  highlighted that it denotes the                                                               
small town  of Lime Village,  17 residents.   Representative Dick                                                               
informed  the committee  that he  represents  Native villages  as                                                               
well  as many  firm  constitutionalists, who  don't fear  natural                                                               
disasters.   He said  that his  constituents are  concerned about                                                               
martial law, and  therefore he inquired as to what  it would look                                                               
like in the state.                                                                                                              
MAJOR GENERAL KATKUS  responded that it would be  directed by the                                                               
communities, which are the leaders  to whom the division provides                                                               
support.   He related that the  chain of support and  response to                                                               
an emergency will  be as follows:  the community,  the state, and                                                               
then the federal  government depending upon the  magnitude of the                                                               
emergency.  "That martial law is  going to be the extent possible                                                               
to maintain good order and  discipline and address the issue, and                                                               
it  is going  to be  synchronized with  local communities,  local                                                               
governors  ... and  it's going  to be  the federal  agency that's                                                               
stepping  in   to  support   the  governor,   unequivocally,"  he                                                               
9:10:00 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE CISSNA  asked if  the division's  website includes                                                               
any tips  for communities  to work together  to problem  solve on                                                               
their  own,  including  relationship building  and  outmigration.                                                               
She  related that  the Anchorage  neighborhoods  in her  district                                                               
used to be better at the aforementioned coordination.                                                                           
MR.  O'HARE  acknowledged  that remote  communities  have  unique                                                               
dynamics,  including   having  multiple  leadership   that  don't                                                               
necessarily  get along.    The division  enters  a community  and                                                               
tries to address it as a whole.   Still, he agreed that there are                                                               
issues with  the aforementioned.   With  regard to  Anchorage, he                                                               
highlighted  that  it  has  put  together  the  beginnings  of  a                                                               
phenomenal  neighborhood   watch  program,  regarding   which  he                                                               
offered to provide information to the committee.                                                                                
9:13:03 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER pointed  out that  many Alaskans  haven't                                                               
experienced a major  earthquake and its effects.   He inquired as                                                               
to when Alaskans  are informed about any aspect  of the emergency                                                               
preparedness system.                                                                                                            
MR.  O'HARE  informed  the committee  that  the  emergency  alert                                                               
system has been used for the  occasional Amber Alert.  The Alaska                                                               
Emergency Alert  System (EAS) is  a relationship with  the Alaska                                                               
Broadcaster's  Association that  provides  a  statewide relay  of                                                               
information, warnings,  alerts, and etcetera.   That relay system                                                               
is tested monthly.   The warning initially comes  from the Alaska                                                               
State Troopers and  then is relayed via the  division; alerts are                                                               
also spread  via television.   The statewide alert  system occurs                                                               
in any instance in which the public needs to be notified.                                                                       
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER  related  that   on  March  10th  he  was                                                               
watching the news  on television when he first heard  the news of                                                               
the earthquake in Japan and received a tsunami advisory.                                                                        
MR. O'HARE noted that the  alert levels proceed through advisory,                                                               
watch, and  warning.  The  National Weather Service is  trying to                                                               
simplify   the   alert   levels.     In   further   response   to                                                               
Representative Saddler,  Mr. O'Hare  confirmed that the  alert is                                                               
publicized through  the television,  radio broadcast,  ham radio,                                                               
and  NOAA weather  radio.   For  those  communities without  NOAA                                                               
weather radio  access or  sporadic communication  capability, the                                                               
ham  radio  operators and  marine  band  works are  relied  upon.                                                               
Furthermore,  the division  prepares  the hub  communities to  be                                                               
able  to alert  the satellite  communities  in their  area.   The                                                               
Alaska  Land   Mobile  Radio  (ALMR)   system  is   a  day-to-day                                                               
administrative communications system  with first responders along                                                               
the  road  system, but  it's  not  part  of the  emergency  alert                                                               
9:17:38 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR MUNOZ asked if Alaska  has officially responded to Japan in                                                               
terms of providing assets or support.                                                                                           
MAJOR  GENERAL  KATKUS  related  that  Alaska  has  made  offers.                                                               
However,  it's critical  to synchronize  the good  intentions and                                                               
good will.  The Alaska National  Guard is flying over with active                                                               
duty personnel  as well as  support aircraft in order  to support                                                               
the  federal  effort  as  far  as  the  military  and  the  State                                                               
Department.   The aforementioned  addresses the  current requests                                                               
and  the  [division] is  prepared  to  step forward  with  future                                                               
9:18:39 AM                                                                                                                    
MAJOR  GENERAL KATKUS,  in  response  to Representative  Gardner,                                                               
clarified that  he doesn't know  of all the requests  through the                                                               
various departments and  divisions.  With regard  to the military                                                               
requests  that  he is  aware  of,  the division  has  coordinated                                                               
through the National Guard Bureau  and the nation.  The [division                                                               
and the  military] are  responding where  requested.   In further                                                               
response   to  Representative   Gardner,  Major   General  Katkus                                                               
confirmed that  there are no  Alaska National Guardsmen  in Japan                                                               
or on  the ground.   However, they  are involved in  the aircraft                                                               
supporting the U.S. efforts in Japan.                                                                                           
9:19:34 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR  MUNOZ   inquired  as  to   how  Alaskans   can  contribute                                                               
MR.   O'HARE   informed   the   committee   that   the   website,                                                               
www.ready.alaska.gov,  includes contact  information with  regard                                                               
to the response  to Japan specifically.  He  echoed Major General                                                               
Katkus' comments regarding that it's  best to coordinate with the                                                               
appropriate  federal  agencies  that are  responding  to  Japan's                                                               
requests, which  is the State  Department and USAID.   Currently,                                                               
transportation is being supplied through the National Guard.                                                                    
9:20:43 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR     MUNOZ     noted     that    the     Salvation     Army,                                                               
www.donate.salvationarmy.org,  and  the  Red Cross  are  actively                                                               
9:21:46 AM                                                                                                                    
TOM   MATTICE,  Emergency   Programs   Coordinator  &   Avalanche                                                               
Forecaster,   City  &   Borough   of   Juneau,  highlighted   the                                                               
coordination efforts  he has  done as  he works  toward emergency                                                               
preparedness and  response.   He related  that he  does a  lot of                                                               
networking,  outreach,  and  training at  all  levels  throughout                                                               
Southeast Alaska.   Therefore,  Mr. Mattice does  a lot  of local                                                               
planning, training,  and exercises as  well as performs a  lot of                                                               
grant management  for Juneau.   One of  the grants he  manages is                                                               
the Metropolitan  Medical Response System (MMRS)  Grant, which is                                                               
a mass  casualty, mass prophylaxis med  (indisc.) that's designed                                                               
for  all of  Southeast Alaska.    There is  a steering  committee                                                               
comprised of  members from throughout Southeast  Alaska that work                                                               
as a group  to plan, train, exercise, and understand  the gaps in                                                               
the  region.   The  goal  is  to work  together  as  a region  to                                                               
facilitate  supporting and  filling in  the gaps.   To  that end,                                                               
teams are built to support other  communities as well as to build                                                               
assets  to support  Southeast communities  and  elsewhere in  the                                                               
state.   The MMRS  grant is  unique.   He informed  the committee                                                               
that he  works a  lot with  DHSS, DHS&EM,  and the  Department of                                                               
Transportation  &  Public  Facilities,  including  staff  at  the                                                               
airport,  ferries,  cruise  lines, hospitals,  fire  chiefs,  law                                                               
enforcement,  and regional  hazardous materials  teams.   Through                                                               
the MMRS  steering committee, six  mobile disaster  shelters have                                                               
been mobilized  that can be  joined to form one  disaster shelter                                                               
to be as  large as a 90-bed  mobile hospital.  Each  of those six                                                               
mobile  disaster shelters,  located throughout  Southeast Alaska,                                                               
has  about $80,000  worth of  emergency management  service (EMS)                                                               
equipment.   Mr.  Mattice  highlighted that  at  Prince of  Wales                                                               
Island next month there will  be a mobilization exercise in which                                                               
seven  communities will  come together  to  form a  three-shelter                                                               
mobile  hospital to  support  a  mass casualty  for  Craig.   The                                                               
exercise will be held at the  Klawock Airport so that if National                                                               
Guard  assets  had  to  be  mobilized  for  forward  movement  of                                                               
patients it  could be  achieved.   There will  also be  an annual                                                               
steering committee meeting to review  how to utilize the funds in                                                               
conjunction with an  annual exercise to support  mass casualty as                                                               
a region.   The lessons learned from  the aforementioned exercise                                                               
will be incorporated  into next year's grant  spending plan while                                                               
also  identifying  gaps that  need  to  be addressed  to  support                                                               
Juneau as well as all of Southeast Alaska.                                                                                      
9:25:36 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE CISSNA  inquired as  to how  transportation issues                                                               
are addressed  on Prince of Wales  Island as well as  other parts                                                               
of  Southeast, particularly  those  areas that  are comprised  of                                                               
multiple islands.                                                                                                               
MR. MATTICE clarified that the  Prince of Wales Island drill will                                                               
also   include  mobilization   structures   from  Ketchikan   and                                                               
Wrangell.   The MMRS steering  committee has reviewed  how assets                                                               
can  be  mobilized,  which  has  resulted  in  working  with  the                                                               
National  Guard  regarding  how   to  load  these  structures  in                                                               
aircraft  and  rapidly  deploy  them.   The  committee  has  also                                                               
[considered/reviewed]  working  with   the  ferry  system,  barge                                                               
systems,  and  smaller  providers.   All  of  the  aforementioned                                                               
illustrates the multi-agency  coordination of planning, training,                                                               
and exercising  so that all  the organizations are  familiar with                                                               
working with and communicating with one another.                                                                                
9:27:16 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE  CISSNA  asked  if  schools are  involved  in  the                                                               
emergency preparedness.                                                                                                         
MR. MATTICE  replied yes.  In  fact, part of the  outreach effort                                                               
for Prince of Wales Island  included first-aid and CPR classes as                                                               
well as  emergency trauma  classes in  the schools.   One  of the                                                               
goals  with the  MMRS  is  to create  responders  at all  levels,                                                               
including children.                                                                                                             
9:27:50 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. MATTICE,  continuing his presentation, reiterated  that there                                                               
is  much focus  of the  planning, training,  and exercises.   Any                                                               
lessons  learned  are incorporated  into  the  grant spending  in                                                               
order to complete  the preparedness loop.   The aforementioned is                                                               
done  annually.   He noted  that his  review of  the All  Hazards                                                               
Mitigation Plan provided a greater  understanding of the concerns                                                               
that  impact  the  City  &  Borough of  Juneau  as  well  as  the                                                               
priorities  to  address  and mitigate  those  concerns  and  find                                                               
sources of  funding.   Through the  review of  the aforementioned                                                               
plan, Mr. Mattice  said that he recognized the City  & Borough of                                                               
Juneau's Emergency  Operations Plan  had some holes.   Therefore,                                                               
the  City &  Borough  of Juneau's  Emergency  Operations Plan  is                                                               
being  revised.    Through  the planning  section  of  DHS&EM  in                                                               
partnership  with  the  city  a   review  was  performed  of  the                                                               
Emergency  Operations Plans  of Ketchikan,  Sitka, and  Juneau in                                                               
conjunction with all  the hospitals in Southeast  Alaska in order                                                               
to  ensure alignment  in terms  of referring  to the  appropriate                                                               
state agencies for  the appropriate support and  mechanisms.  The                                                               
City  & Borough  has  now  began to  review  its  plan and  added                                                               
various  necessary annexes,  including transportation,  local and                                                               
out-of-town  evacuation  annexes  as  well  as  mass  care,  mass                                                               
shelter, mass casualty, and mass fatality.                                                                                      
9:29:21 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR MUNOZ asked  if Mr. Mattice is involved in  the air quality                                                               
MR. MATTICE replied no, but noted  that he is paying attention to                                                               
it.   In  fact,  he noted  that he  had  expressed concerns  with                                                               
regard  to  the  data  not  being real-time  data.    In  further                                                               
response  to  Chair  Munoz,  Mr. Mattice  confirmed  that  he  is                                                               
following  the disaster  in  Japan  and wrote  a  paper that  was                                                               
presented to the Juneau Assembly.   In response to Representative                                                               
Gardner, Mr.  Mattice agreed to provide  the aforementioned paper                                                               
to the committee.  With regard  to a food storage plan in Juneau,                                                               
Mr.  Mattice stated  that the  City &  Borough of  Juneau doesn't                                                               
have a formal  plan to address its food supply.   Obviously, with                                                               
the review of  transportation one of the goals is  to ensure that                                                               
food can continue to be brought  into the community.  However, he                                                               
acknowledged that it's a weakness.                                                                                              
9:31:02 AM                                                                                                                    
MR.  MATTICE,   completing  his  presentation,   emphasized  that                                                               
critical   to  planning   is  the   buy-in  as   is  multi-agency                                                               
coordination to  review the assets  necessary at  critical times.                                                               
He   noted   that   he   coordinates   with   various   volunteer                                                               
organizations to staff emergency  shelters.  He characterized his                                                               
position as  the hub of  the many organizations that  ensures all                                                               
the lines of communication remain  open.  Volunteer organizations                                                               
active in disaster  are a large part  of those with who  he is in                                                               
contact.  Training is performed  throughout the City & Borough of                                                               
Juneau as  well as  throughout Southeast  Alaska.   This training                                                               
ranges from training for those  emergency responders to the local                                                               
citizens.  He  also reviews how to utilize funds  to address gaps                                                               
in services  and equipment.   In fact, oxygen  generation systems                                                               
have been  deployed in multiple  Southeast Alaska  communities in                                                               
order  to  avoid  dependency  on  the  barges  during  a  crisis.                                                               
Furthermore,  two level  A hazardous  materials  teams have  been                                                               
built in  Ketchikan and Juneau to  be able to deploy  and support                                                               
smaller communities  in Southeast Alaska.   Mass casualty patient                                                               
tracking systems have been provided  to the large communities and                                                               
hospitals in Southeast  Alaska in order to review  how to provide                                                               
forward  movement  of  patients.    Also,  Southeast  communities                                                               
continue to  exercise with one  another.   He noted that  most of                                                               
the  exercises   he  coordinates  are  geared   toward  the  mass                                                               
casualty,   multi-agency   coordination  with   unified   command                                                               
structures.    Pandemic  mass medication  exercises  are  another                                                               
large component  of what  Mr. Mattice  does should  the strategic                                                               
national stockpiles need  to be implemented.   In conclusion, Mr.                                                               
Mattice  said that  through multi-agency  coordination, planning,                                                               
training,   exercising,   revisiting    necessary   assets,   and                                                               
incorporating  lessons  learned  into  future  planning,  focused                                                               
efforts  are  being made  to  improve  emergency preparedness  in                                                               
Juneau and Southeast Alaska.                                                                                                    
9:34:48 AM                                                                                                                    
MR. MATTICE,  in response to Representative  Gardner, related his                                                               
assumption  that similar  efforts  are being  made in  Anchorage.                                                               
Those efforts,  he opined, likely  delve into more detail  as the                                                               
Anchorage team has more staff.                                                                                                  
9:35:14 AM                                                                                                                    
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER  thanked all the presenters  for providing                                                               
reassurance regarding emergency preparedness.   He asked if there                                                               
is a global gold standard for emergency preparedness.                                                                           
MR. MATTICE  said that  he didn't  know how  to answer  that, but                                                               
opined that  he's trying  to create  such constantly.   Southeast                                                               
Alaska  presents  unique  challenges  in terms  of  the  distance                                                               
between  communities,  difficult  access, and  limited  lines  of                                                               
9:36:12 AM                                                                                                                    
CHAIR  MUNOZ  thanked  the  presenters.    She  then  noted  that                                                               
Representative  Cissna will  provide committee  members with  the                                                               
Legislative  Health Caucus'  publication  on  Alaska well  being,                                                               
which includes a chapter on disaster preparedness.                                                                              
9:36:35 AM                                                                                                                    
There being no  further business before the  committee, the House                                                               
Community  and Regional  Affairs Standing  Committee meeting  was                                                               
adjourned at 9:36 a.m.                                                                                                          

Document Name Date/Time Subjects
HB196-CCED-AEA-03-18-11.pdf HCRA 3/22/2011 8:00:00 AM
HB 196
Sectional Analysis HB196.pdf HCRA 3/22/2011 8:00:00 AM
HB 196