Legislature(2017 - 2018)GRUENBERG 120

02/22/2018 01:00 PM MILITARY & VETERANS' AFFAIRS

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Audio Topic
01:07:41 PM Start
01:08:00 PM Presentation: 151 Year History of the United States Coast Guard in Alaska
02:14:01 PM Adjourn
* first hearing in first committee of referral
+ teleconferenced
= bill was previously heard/scheduled
+ Presentation: 151 years of Coast Guard in AK by TELECONFERENCED
Gene White
+ Bills Previously Heard/Scheduled TELECONFERENCED
                    ALASKA STATE LEGISLATURE                                                                                  
   HOUSE SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON MILITARY AND VETERANS' AFFAIRS                                                                  
                       February 22, 2018                                                                                        
                           1:07 p.m.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
MEMBERS PRESENT                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                
Representative Chris Tuck, Chair                                                                                                
Representative Gabrielle LeDoux, Vice Chair                                                                                     
Representative Justin Parish                                                                                                    
Representative Ivy Spohnholz                                                                                                    
Representative George Rauscher                                                                                                  
Representative Lora Reinbold                                                                                                    
Representative Dan Saddler                                                                                                      
                                                                                                                                
MEMBERS ABSENT                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
All members present                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
COMMITTEE CALENDAR                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
PRESENTATION:  151 YEAR HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES COAST GUARD                                                                
IN ALASKA                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                
     - HEARD                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
PREVIOUS COMMITTEE ACTION                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
No previous action to record                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
WITNESS REGISTER                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                
GENE WHITE                                                                                                                      
Representing Self                                                                                                               
Anchorage, Alaska                                                                                                               
POSITION STATEMENT:  Presented a PowerPoint of "151 Year History                                                              
of the United States Coast Guard in Alaska".                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
ACTION NARRATIVE                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                
1:07:41 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
VICE CHAIR  GABRIELLE LEDOUX called  the House  Special Committee                                                             
on Military and  Veterans' Affairs meeting to order  at 1:07 p.m.                                                               
Representatives  Saddler, Reinbold,  Sponholz, Parish,  Rauscher,                                                               
and Ledoux  were present  at the call  to order.   Representative                                                               
Tuck arrived as the meeting was in progress.                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
^Presentation: 151 Year History of  the United States Coast Guard                                                               
in Alaska                                                                                                                       
             Presentation: 151 Year History of the                                                                          
              United States Coast Guard in Alaska                                                                           
                                                                                                                              
1:08:00 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
VICE  CHAIR LEDOUX  announced  that the  only  order of  business                                                               
would be a  presentation titled, "151 Year History  of the United                                                               
States Coast Guard in Alaska."                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                
1:08:26 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
GENE WHITE,  Representing Self, advised  that he has had  a long-                                                               
standing interest in the history  of Alaska and the United States                                                               
Coast  Guard, it  basically came  together in  this presentation,                                                               
and he served  for four years in the U.S.  Coast Guard many years                                                               
ago.   He turned to slides  2-3 and pointed to  the five branches                                                               
of  the U.S.  Military,  of  which there  are  a  total of  seven                                                               
uniformed  services including  military  and  non-military.   The                                                               
definition of the National  and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)                                                               
and the  United State Public  Health Service, under 10  U.S. Code                                                               
Section 101(a)(5)(B&C), is described  as uniformed services.  The                                                               
National  Oceanic  and   Atmospheric  Administration  (NOAA)  was                                                               
created in  1807, originally it  was the U.S. Coast  and Geodetic                                                               
Survey.                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                
1:10:54 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
The committee took a brief at ease.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
1:11:11 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
CHAIR  TUCK brought  the committee  back to  order and  asked Mr.                                                               
White to continue his presentation.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
1:11:15 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  reiterated that the  National Oceanic  and Atmospheric                                                               
Administration's (NOAA)  predecessor was created in  1807, as the                                                               
U.S.  Coast and  Geodetic Survey.   The  U.S. Coast  and Geodetic                                                               
Survey performed a  lot of the mapping for  navigation around the                                                               
coastlines.   He turned to slides  4-5 and advised that  NOAA has                                                               
commissioned officers  and their uniforms are  U.S. Navy uniforms                                                               
with NOAA insignia.   The U.S. Public Health  Service was created                                                               
in  1798, under  "An  Act for  the Relief  of  Sick and  Disabled                                                               
Seamen."   The U.S.  Public Health Service  also wears  U.S. Navy                                                               
uniforms and the  United States Surgeon General is  an admiral as                                                               
a commissioned officer.  All  of the commissioned officers in the                                                               
United States  Center for Diseases  Control (CDC)  wear uniforms,                                                               
as they do in the Alaska Native Medical Center (ANMC).                                                                          
                                                                                                                                
1:12:35 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned to Senator Lisa  Murkowski on slide 5, and noted                                                               
that Senator Murkowski  was born in Ketchikan in  a Public Health                                                               
Services  hospital while  her  father was  in  the United  States                                                               
Coast Guard.   Traditionally,  the U.S. Coast  Guard is  the only                                                               
military  branch that  does  not,  essentially, have  essentially                                                               
doctors or  hospitals, which  is why they  use the  Public Health                                                               
Service.                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                
1:13:26 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  LEDOUX noted  that  she lived  in  Kodiak at  one                                                               
time, and  opined that  Kodiak has the  largest U.S.  Coast Guard                                                               
base in  the country.   She  asked whether the  base has  its own                                                               
hospital.                                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE  noted that  he  does  not  have  the answer  to  that                                                               
question, but the U.S. Coast Guard does have clinics.                                                                           
                                                                                                                                
1:13:56 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER   asked  the  rating  of   Senator  Frank                                                               
Murkowski's in the U.S. Coast Guard.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  answered that he did  not know the answer,  and he has                                                               
never heard Senator Frank Murkowski talk about his rating.                                                                      
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER answered  that  Senator  Murkowski was  a                                                               
storekeeper second.                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
1:14:20 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide 6,  and explained that under  Title 14                                                               
U.S. Code,  the U.S. Coast  Guard was established on  January 28,                                                               
1915, "it shall  be a military service and a  branch of the armed                                                               
forces of  the United States at  all times."  Under  14 U.S. Code                                                               
Section  89,  the U.S.  Coast  Guard  is  tasked with  being  law                                                               
enforcement  that  enforces  the  maritime  laws  of  the  United                                                               
States.   In  1915,  the  U.S. Coast  Guard  officially became  a                                                               
military service  by merging the  Revenue Cutter Service  and the                                                               
U.S. Lifesaving  Service to  form the U.S.  Coast Guard  with the                                                               
emblem known today.                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
1:15:28 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned  to slides 7-9 and noted that  the U.S. Navy was                                                               
disbanded in  1785.  Initially, he  explained, Alexander Hamilton                                                               
was the Father of  the U.S. Coast Guard, on the  $10 bill, and he                                                               
was  the first  Secretary of  the  Treasury.   Subsequent to  the                                                               
Revolutionary  War, the  United States  was essentially  "a broke                                                               
country" with no  money and not many avenues  to collect revenue.                                                               
In  that  regard, custom  laws  were  enacted with  the  intended                                                               
duties  of enforcing  tariffs, so  Alexander Hamilton  decided to                                                               
develop a system  of cutters to help enforce the  tariff laws and                                                               
assist in the collection of the  monies.  The Constitution of the                                                               
United  States  was ratified  in  1788,  and the  Revenue  Cutter                                                               
Service   came  into   existence   only  two   years  after   the                                                               
constitution  was  ratified.   The  Revenue  Cutter  Service  was                                                               
charged with enforcing custom laws,  then in 1822, the Timber Act                                                               
was passed  to protect the country's  strategic natural resources                                                               
of which  the Revenue Cutter  Service played  a big role  in this                                                               
protection.  In April of 1912,  the [Royal Mail Ship] RMS Titanic                                                               
sank and the International Ice Patrol was formed.                                                                               
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slides 9-10,  and advised that in  1791, the                                                               
first  cutter of  ten cutters  was  commissioned, everything  was                                                               
smaller in  those days and this  ship was only 48'  long with two                                                               
masts.  After  realizing the U.S. Navy  should be recommissioned,                                                               
the Naval Act of 1794 [Sess. 1,  ch. 12, 1 Stat. 350], was passed                                                               
by the  3rd United States Congress  on March 27, 1794  and signed                                                               
into  law by  President George  Washington.   It  did not  become                                                               
active until 1798.                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                
1:17:59 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slides  10-13, and advised that  the Revenue                                                               
Cutter Service/U.S. Coast Guard has been  active in all wars.  He                                                               
referred to  the 1797-1801 "XYZ  Affair," which was  a diplomatic                                                               
incident  between   French  and  United  States   diplomats  that                                                               
resulted in  a limited,  undeclared war  known as  the Quasi-War.                                                               
He advised that the U.S. Navy  had not yet become operational and                                                               
the Revenue  Cutter Service  was actually  the only  marine force                                                               
America  had available,  and  it protected  the  nation from  the                                                               
problems it  was having with privateers.   He then read  the list                                                               
of  wars from  slide  10,  and advised  that  the Revenue  Cutter                                                               
Service/U.S. Coast Guard  played an important part in  all of the                                                               
wars.   During  the War  of  1812, United  States Revenue  Cutter                                                               
(USRC)  captured the  British Schooner  Patriot, the  first naval                                                               
capture  of that  conflict.   Slide 11a  is a  photograph of  the                                                               
Confederate  Army's  Steamer,  SS  Nashville in  service  at  the                                                               
beginning  of the  Civil  War, and  on the  right  is the  United                                                               
States Revenue  Cutter Harriett Lane.   He explained that  the SS                                                               
Nashville  was trying  to steam  into  Charleston Harbor  without                                                               
displaying a  flag of  origin, it was  basically trying  to sneak                                                               
into the  harbor.  The USRC  Harriett Lane fired a  shot over its                                                               
bow to tell it  to show its colors, and that  was the first naval                                                               
shot of the Civil  War.  In World War 1,  six Coast Guard cutters                                                               
were sent to England to assist  in convoy duty due to the damages                                                               
caused by  German U-Boats, so  the cutters escorted  convoys from                                                               
Great Britain  to Gibraltar.   Unfortunately, he advised,  as the                                                               
war was  coming to an  end in 1918,  the U-Boat USCGC  Tampa sank                                                               
with the loss of all hands.   Slide 12a depicts the current USCGC                                                               
Tampa as  the name lives  on in memory of  those lives lost.   In                                                               
World War 1,  Lieutenant Philip Bentley Eaton  served Alaska duty                                                               
on the USCGC Bear for two  years, he was selected to perform that                                                               
duty  from the  first U.S.  Coast Guard  Naval Aviation  class in                                                               
1917.   He explained that the  U.S. Coast Guard had  decided that                                                               
aviation was  going to  be important, so  the first  training was                                                               
held in Pensacola, Florida.  Slide  13b depicts World War II, and                                                               
the sign  read as follows:   "The Marines solute the  Coast Guard                                                               
for their  big part in  the invasion of Guam.   They put  us here                                                               
and we intend to stay."                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                
1:21:12 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slides  14-15a, and noted that  on September                                                               
27, 1942,  Signalman 1st Class Douglas  Munro was in charge  of a                                                               
group of small boats that were  used to drop about 500 Marines at                                                               
a beachhead by the Matanikau  River.  When Munro's boats returned                                                               
to their rallying point, after  the drop-off, they were told that                                                               
the  Marines were  under attack  from a  huge Japanese  force and                                                               
needed to  be extracted immediately.   Signalman 1st  Class Munro                                                               
quickly volunteered  for the  job and devised  a way  to evacuate                                                               
the  battalion.   Despite heavy  fire  from machine  guns on  the                                                               
island, Munro directed  five of his small craft  toward the shore                                                               
to pick  up the Marines who  had made it  back to the beach.   As                                                               
they closed  in, he signaled  the other  boats to land,  and they                                                               
were  able  to  collect  most  of  the  Marines,  but  some  were                                                               
struggling.  In  an  effort  to   block  them  from  enemy  fire,                                                               
Signalman 1st Class Munro moved his  own boat as a shield between                                                               
the beachhead  and the other  boats.  His actions  cost Signalman                                                               
1st Class  Munro his life, he  was hit by enemy  fire and killed.                                                               
According  to  fellow  signalman  Ray Evans,  who  enlisted  with                                                               
Munro, and  was on the boat  with him when he  died, Munro's last                                                               
words were,  "Did they  get off?"  referring to  the last  of the                                                               
Marines.                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE advised  that Signalman  1st Class  Munro is  the only                                                               
U.S. Coast  Guard member to  receive the  Medal of Honor,  and in                                                               
honor of  his actions,  the USCGC Munro  is stationed  in Kodiak.                                                               
The USCGC  Cyane, while stationed  in Ketchikan, served  a couple                                                               
of years of Alaska duty before  World War II started, it was then                                                               
refitted  to  perform   anti-submarine  patrols,  convoy  escorts                                                               
traveling to Adak, Kodiak, search and rescue duty, and so forth.                                                                
                                                                                                                                
1:22:47 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned  to slides 15b-17a, and advised  that the Alaska                                                               
Purchase Ceremony was on October  18, 1867, purchased in March of                                                               
that  year, and  not long  after  that, the  U.S. Revenue  Cutter                                                               
Lincoln  arrived  in Sitka  carrying  a  survey party  headed  by                                                               
George Davidson, visiting  Kodiak and Unalaska.   When Alaska was                                                               
purchased, the general feeling in  the U.S. Congress and possibly                                                               
the public,  was "What?  $7  million to buy a  frozen wasteland?"                                                               
The U.S.  Revenue Cutter  Lincoln, as part  of the  survey party,                                                               
produced a 300 page report which  was used to assist in the first                                                               
appropriation of monies for the  development of Alaska.  The U.S.                                                               
Revenue Cutter  Lincoln also brought  the official  delegation to                                                               
receive Alaska  from Russia during the  Alaska Purchase Ceremony,                                                               
he said.                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                
1:23:57 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to  slide 17b, and  explained that  when Alaska                                                               
was purchased,  the only infrastructure it  actually received was                                                               
the Baranof Castle  in Sitka where a light  beacon was positioned                                                               
at the  top.  He explained  that there was a  separate lighthouse                                                               
service at  the time, it  was not part  of the U.S.  Coast Guard,                                                               
and that service  decided it was too hard to  maintain and wanted                                                               
nothing to do with the lighthouse.   He related that, "Out of the                                                               
goodness of their hearts," the  U.S. Army actually ran the beacon                                                               
on top of the Baranof Castle for 10 years for free.                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE turned  to slides  18-19a, and  advised that  the USRC                                                               
Wayanda performed survey and research  in Alaska, and recommended                                                               
that a  federal reserve  be established  to protect  the northern                                                               
fur sales  for the Aleut  people and the Privoloff  Islands after                                                               
research was  done to show  they needed some protection,  and the                                                               
federal  government acted  quickly  on this  problem.   The  USRC                                                               
Wayanda also  surveyed Cook Inlet  and some of  Southeast Alaska.                                                               
When  Alaska was  purchased, it  was  considered to  be a  frozen                                                               
wasteland,  which included  fishing.   Except,  the USRC  Wayanda                                                               
fished close  to the Aleutian Islands  and found it to  be a rich                                                               
fishing ground  for cod  and halibut.   In  1877, the  U.S. Army,                                                               
which  had been  protecting  Alaska for  10  years, was  suddenly                                                               
pulled  out of  Alaska.    After performing  research  as to  the                                                               
reason, he found  that the year prior, the 1876  Battle of Little                                                               
Big Horn took place which was  described as a "huge black eye for                                                               
the  U.S. Army,"  and  a presidential  election  was coming  that                                                               
November  of  1876, and  Ulysses  S.  Grant  was President.    He                                                               
explained  that  the two  presidential  candidates  in 1876  were                                                               
Samuel  Tilden, Democrat,  and Rutherford  B. Hayes,  Republican.                                                               
Mr.  Tilden  won the  popular  vote  and received  184  electoral                                                               
votes, but the electoral college count  needed to be 185.  Twenty                                                               
votes had  not actually been  cast by mostly southern  states, he                                                               
opined, so  the U.S. Congress  set up  a commission to  deal with                                                               
this issue, which  resulted in a lot of back  room dealing in the                                                               
Congress.    This presidential  election  took  place during  the                                                               
rebuilding  of the  south which  is called  Reconstruction [1865-                                                               
1877], and  after the Civil  War, U.S. Army troops  occupied some                                                               
southern  states and  some  governors were  not  allowed to  take                                                               
their  seats.    In  order to  solve  the  presidential  election                                                               
dilemma, it  was agreed  that all  federal troops  would withdraw                                                               
from the south and the governors  would re-take their seats.  For                                                               
that deal,  President Hayes picked  up the rest of  the electoral                                                               
votes resulting in President Hayes  with 185 electoral votes, Mr.                                                               
Tilden  with  184 electoral  votes.    Mr. White  commented  that                                                               
exciting elections were not invented just recently.                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE  advised  that  in  June  of  1877,  the  troops  were                                                               
withdrawn and President Hayes stated  the War Department would no                                                               
longer  be  in  charge  of  Alaska, and  the  Department  of  the                                                               
Treasury  was  now  in  charge.   Under  the  Department  of  the                                                               
Treasury  was the  Revenue Cutter  Service.   He referred  to the                                                               
actions of  Congress and withdrawing the  troops, referencing the                                                               
passage of  the Posse Comitatus Act  of 1878.  He  noted that the                                                               
[Wild] West continued  the practice of British  common law, which                                                               
gave sheriffs the  right to arrest those resisting  a warrant and                                                               
form a  posse, he  explained.   The Posse  Comitatus Act  of 1878                                                               
prohibited the  use of the  U.S. Army  to aid civil  officials in                                                               
enforcing the law or suppressing  civil disorder unless expressly                                                               
ordered to do so by the president.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                
1:28:56 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to  slide 19b, and  advised that  Thomas Corwin                                                               
was  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  under  President  Millard                                                               
Corwin, and  the USRC Corwin  made its  first Bering Sea  trip in                                                               
1877.  In 1880, John  Sherman, Secretary of the Treasury, ordered                                                               
annual Bering Sea patrol duty,  and Treasury Secretary Sherman is                                                               
known for  the Sherman Anti-Trust Act  of 1890.  The  whole issue                                                               
of Alaska being under the  Department of the Treasury changed the                                                               
future of Alaska.                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide  19, and  advised that the  captain of                                                               
the USRC Corwin  was Captain C.L. Hooper who  had visited several                                                               
villages around the state, and  one of those villages changed its                                                               
name to Hooper Bay.  In  1883, Captain Michael Healy took command                                                               
of the USRC Corwin.                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
1:30:05 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide  20a, "1884 Early Aids  to Navigation"                                                               
and  reiterated that  the aid  to navigation  that Alaska  had to                                                               
start with  was the beacon on  top of Baranof Castle  and finally                                                               
in 1884,  1,400 buoys  were set  close to Sitka.   When  the U.S.                                                               
Army  pulled out  of  Sitka, the  beacon on  top  of the  Baranof                                                               
Castle was  also out, and  finally, in  1895, a beacon  was added                                                               
back to Sitka.  In 1897,  the only aids to navigation were around                                                               
Sitka and  it was  the time of  the Klondike Gold  Rush.   As the                                                               
committee is  aware, navigating in Southeast  Alaska is dangerous                                                               
especially without any type of  help with aids to navigation, and                                                               
the  Klondike   Gold  Rush  actually   took  place   without  any                                                               
navigational assistance, except when close to Sitka.                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
1:30:56 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  RAUSCHER requested  a  description  of a  Revenue                                                               
Cutter.                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  explained that a  cutter is  a reference to  a smaller                                                               
sailing  vessel with  two masts,  and Alexander  Hamilton decided                                                               
America  needed a  system of  cutters.   The name  Revenue Cutter                                                               
stuck  until the  Revenue Cutter  Service became  the U.S.  Coast                                                               
Guard in 1915.   He advised that originally,  the Revenue Cutters                                                               
were  there to  assist  in  the collection  of  revenues for  the                                                               
country.                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                
1:32:07 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned  to slide 20b-22, and advised that  in 1885, the                                                               
USRC Bear  was transferred to Alaska,  and it served 41  years on                                                               
Alaska  patrol  duty,  which  is   the  longest  serving  revenue                                                               
cutter/coast guard  cutter ever, and  that number has  never been                                                               
surpassed.   It is  a pretty  famous ship,  he described.   "Hell                                                               
Roaring" Captain Mike Healy commanded  the USRC Bear in 1886, and                                                               
he was the first African-American  to receive a commission in the                                                               
United  States,  and  the first  African-American  to  command  a                                                               
commissioned ship.   Captain Healy  was African-American  but his                                                               
father  was a  slave owner,  which is  a whole  story by  itself.                                                               
Captain Healy  was able  to go  to school,  get into  the revenue                                                               
cutter service,  and perform especially  well.  The fact  that he                                                               
was  African-American  was  basically  a secret,  he  never  told                                                               
anyone, and it was not known for a long time, he said.                                                                          
                                                                                                                                
1:33:12 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
CHAIR  TUCK  noted  that  the  USRC Bear  was  displayed  in  the                                                               
[capitol] lounge and when the  art was reorganized in the lounge,                                                               
he took it to his office.                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                
1:33:39 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  explained that  the USRC  Bear controlled  the illegal                                                               
liquor  distribution traders  used  to exploit  Natives, and  the                                                               
Native people referred  to the USRC Bear as "the  fire canoe with                                                               
no whiskey."  During the summer  of 1888, some whaling ships were                                                               
stranded in the Arctic, close  to Point Barrow, and they couldn't                                                               
get  out.   Captain  Healy was  told  that that  it  was "a  near                                                               
impossible rescue,"  but he went anyway.   This is partly  how he                                                               
got his  name Captain "Hell Roaring"  Mike Healy.  He  went there                                                               
anyway to rescue 160 seamen from the storm with no loss of life.                                                                
                                                                                                                                
Mr.  White then  read  a  sample of  the  duties  of the  revenue                                                               
cutters at the time, as follows:                                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
     The  United States  Revenue  Cutters secured  witnesses                                                                    
     for  a murder  case; ferried  reindeer from  Siberia to                                                                    
     Alaska; transported the territorial  governor on a tour                                                                    
     of Alaska's islands; shipped a  USGS survey team to Mt.                                                                    
     Saint  Elias; carried  lumber and  supplies for  school                                                                    
     construction  in  remote   locations  and  the  Arctic;                                                                    
     delivered   teachers  to   their  remote   assignments;                                                                    
     carried  mail for  the  U.S.  Postal Service;  enforced                                                                    
     seal hunting  laws in the Pribilof;  assisted the coast                                                                    
     and geodetic  survey team;  provided medical  relief to                                                                    
     Native  populations;  served   all  life-saving  rescue                                                                    
     missions; and enforced federal law.                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  described the above  as a  sample of what  the revenue                                                               
cutters were doing for Alaska in the early days.                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
1:35:40 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  REINBOLD commented  that she  was impressed  that                                                               
that the  cutters were able to  save lives without a  single life                                                               
lost, "that's called efficient government right there."                                                                         
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  responded that all of  the ships he has  referenced so                                                               
far in  this presentation  performed many  of those  same duties.                                                               
The  revenue cutters,  and  later the  coast  guard cutters  also                                                               
performed  judicial  functions  and   were  referred  to  as  the                                                               
"floating court  system."   The revenue  cutters would  carry the                                                               
judge/judges to  perform their legal  duties to  remote locations                                                               
in Alaska.   Alaska was not  even a territory until  1912, it did                                                               
not have judicial districts so  the revenue cutter service played                                                               
an important role.                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                
1:36:31 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to  slide 23, and  explained that  reindeer and                                                               
caribou  are, although  technically  the same,  caribou are  wild                                                               
animals  indigenous  in North  America.    Reindeer are  domestic                                                               
animals that  were domesticated  in Europe  and brought  to North                                                               
America,  which is  what slide  23  depicts.   Early on,  Captain                                                               
Healy realized that  the Natives had been relying  on hunting and                                                               
fishing, except after  the white people arrived  in Alaska, their                                                               
stocks  of everything  were being  depleted and  malnutrition and                                                               
starvation  was  taking  place   within  the  Native  population.                                                               
Captain Healy put  his head together with Dr.  Sheldon Jackson, a                                                               
Presbyterian  missionary, and  they considered  domestic reindeer                                                               
as the  solution.  In 1891,  the USRS Bear shipped  live reindeer                                                               
to  the  Aleutian  Islands  from Siberia  just  see  whether  the                                                               
reindeer could survive the transport  and then survive in Alaska,                                                               
and they  could.  In 1892,  Captain Healy brought over  the first                                                               
official  shipment  of animals  to  Alaska.   During  the  1890s,                                                               
revenue cutters  transported thousands of reindeer,  and by 1930,                                                               
domesticated reindeer  herds totaled  600,000 with  13,000 Native                                                               
Alaskans relying on the herds for subsistence.                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                
1:38:07 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned  to slide 24a, and noted that  the slide depicts                                                               
the  1/6/2012 commemoration  of the  USCGC Healy,  an icebreaker.                                                               
In 2012, a harsh  winter was taking a toll on  Nome causing it to                                                               
basically  run out  of fuel,  an arrangement  was made  to get  a                                                               
Russian tanker  into Nome to refuel  the community.  In  order to                                                               
facilitate that plan, the USCGC  Healy actually broke the ice for                                                               
the tanker to get in and out.                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide 24b,  and said that in  honor of Black                                                               
History Month,  this is a  photo of Alex  Haley posing in  a U.S.                                                               
Coast  Guard uniform.   He  is a  famous author,  wrote the  book                                                               
Roots, he was  the first journalist in the U.S.  Coast Guard, the                                                             
first African-American to  make Chief Petty Officer  grade in the                                                               
Coast  Guard, and  he retired  with 20  years in  the U.S.  Coast                                                               
Guard service.                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to  slide 25b,  and noted  that it  depicts the                                                               
commemoration  of  Alex  Haley,  as the  USCGC  Haley,  which  is                                                               
stationed in Kodiak.                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
1:39:35 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide  25b, referred  to the USRC  Bear, and                                                               
said that in 1897, whalers had  gotten into trouble in the Arctic                                                               
and  were stuck  in  the ice  not  far from  the  area the  other                                                               
whalers  had been  stuck.    The only  difference  was that  this                                                               
rescue was in  the winter.  President William  McKinley ordered a                                                               
rescue  of the  eight whaling  ships,  which was  the first  time                                                               
before climate change  that a ship sailed into  the Arctic during                                                               
winter.  These whalers sailed as  far north as they could travel,                                                               
somewhere  around Nome  and south  of Kotzebue.   They  obviously                                                               
could not take  a ship up there  so a plan was  devised to rescue                                                               
these whalers  with reindeer because the  whalers would otherwise                                                               
starve to  death.   The captain sent  Lieutenant David  H. Jarvis                                                               
and Officer  Ellsworth P.  Bertholf to drive  a herd  of reindeer                                                               
all  the way  around coastal  Alaska  to Point  Barrow, which  is                                                               
about  1,500 miles.   In  March 1898,  they stopped  and gathered                                                               
reindeer along  the way and  drove them across Kotzebue  Sound on                                                               
the ice,  which is a  whole story by itself.   He said  that they                                                               
drove reindeer  1,500 miles and  finally ended up  delivering 382                                                               
reindeer to the stranded whalers with no loss of life.                                                                          
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE  said that  to  commemorate,  the USRC/USCGC  Bear  is                                                               
depicted  in slide  26a, and  it is  the modern  day 35-year  old                                                               
USCGC Bear.  Slide 26a depicts  a photo of Ellsworth Bertholf who                                                               
has  his  own  long  story,  and he  ended  up  being  the  first                                                               
commandant  of the  U.S. Coast  Guard when  it became  a military                                                               
service  in  1915.   Slide  27a  depicts  the USCGC  Bertholf  in                                                               
commemoration of Ellsworth Bertholf.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
1:42:10 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER  asked  how  many  different  classes  of                                                               
cutters are currently being used in the U.S. Coast Guard.                                                                       
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE replied  that the U.S. Coast Guard does  so many things                                                               
that he was  unsure he could answer that question  properly.  The                                                               
USCGC  Bertholf is  a patrol  craft  in the  security class,  the                                                               
first  one was  actually  commissioned in  2010  and, he  opined,                                                               
approximately 12 or 16 will  be commissioned.  The security class                                                               
patrol craft are the newest and  largest patrol craft of the U.S.                                                               
Coast  Guard.   As far  as how  many different  classes, that  is                                                               
scaled down all the way to  small boats, it is a complex function                                                               
that goes to buoy tenders and icebreakers, he said.                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER asked the oldest cutter class in service.                                                                
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE answered  that the  oldest  class in  service for  the                                                               
patrol craft is probably the 378s,  such as the USCGC Munro which                                                               
is  based in  Kodiak.   These ships  were built  during the  late                                                               
1960s,  and he  opined  that  some are  still  in service  today,                                                               
although, they are slowly going out of commission.                                                                              
                                                                                                                                
1:44:05 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned to slide 27a-28a,  and advised that in 1898, the                                                               
USRC  Manning began  its Alaska  duty,  and in  1900 started  its                                                               
Bering Sea duty.   On June 6, 1912, the USRC  Manning was tied up                                                               
in Kodiak  when the  Mount Katmai Volcano  began erupting  on the                                                               
Alaska  Peninsula,  the biggest  volcanic  eruption  in the  20th                                                               
Century.   He advised  that not many  people were  killed because                                                               
they  had   received  warnings  and  were   evacuated,  but  some                                                               
communities and  villages were  destroyed when  a huge  amount of                                                               
ash  was dumped  on  Kodiak.   Most of  the  residents in  Kodiak                                                               
actually boarded the USRC Manning, and  the next day the ship got                                                               
underway out to sea  for a period of time.   The 500 residents of                                                               
Kodiak  were completely  evacuated  and they  returned after  the                                                               
volcano  calmed  down.    The USRC  Manning  helped  to  relocate                                                               
several of  the villages by  transporting the people and  some of                                                               
the products.                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                
1:45:35 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to  slide 28, and  advised that  originally, 16                                                               
lighthouses  were built  in 1902-1932,  and 11  are still  in use                                                               
today such  as, the  Unimak Pass [Scotch  Cap Lighthouse]  on the                                                               
easternmost island in the Aleutian  Islands.  When traveling from                                                               
the North Pacific  into the Bering Sea, Unimak Pass  is the route                                                               
to get  there.  A  lighthouse was first  built in Unimak  Pass in                                                               
1903, then rebuilt in 1940.   In 1945, Anthony Petit received the                                                               
assignment light keeper to the  Scotch Cap Lighthouse as the head                                                               
of a five-man crew.  All of the  men were killed on April 1, 1946                                                               
during  the  1946 Aleutian  Islands  earthquake,  when a  massive                                                               
tsunami struck  the station, destroying  it.  This was  the worst                                                               
disaster to ever  befall a land-based Coast  Guard light station.                                                               
The United  States Coast Guard  named a Keeper Class  buoy tender                                                               
USCGC Anthony  Petit (WLM-558), based  in Ketchikan in  his honor                                                               
and it maintains aids to navigation.                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
1:47:43 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned to slide 30b,  and advised that during World War                                                               
II, the  War Department  decided it  would turn  off all  aids to                                                               
navigation  in  order  to  not help  the  enemy  navigate  around                                                               
Alaska.  Unfortunately,  not only did that decision  not help the                                                               
enemy  but  it didn't  help  our  friends  because the  SS  Mount                                                               
McKinley  ran  aground  in  bad  weather,  close  to  Scotch  Cap                                                               
Lighthouse in 194, because the light was not lit.                                                                               
                                                                                                                                
1:48:47 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE  turned  to  slide   31a,  referred  to  the  aids  to                                                               
navigation after the  1897 Klondike Gold Rush, and  noted that in                                                               
June  1906,  the first  real  aids  to navigation  were  actually                                                               
installed in the  state, not counting the  lighthouses which were                                                               
the large aids.  He reiterated  that the lighthouse service was a                                                               
separate organization  until 1939  when it  merged with  the U.S.                                                               
Coast Guard, but the U.S. Coast  Guard was performing the aids to                                                               
navigation.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE  turned to  slide  31b,  and  advised that  the  photo                                                               
depicts the  USCGC Storis, stationed  in Kodiak for a  long time,                                                               
it has an  interesting service which is a whole  story by itself.                                                               
In World  War II, the  USCGC Storis  had an interesting  story in                                                               
Greenland, and  in 1948 it  was transferred to Alaska  for Bering                                                               
Sea duty.  In  its role in Alaska, it also  performed in the same                                                               
manner  as its  predecessors by  delivering medical,  dental, and                                                               
judicial  services  around  the  state.   The  USCGC  Storis  was                                                               
stationed in Kodiak until it was  decommissioned in 2007.  It was                                                               
the  first ship  to circum-navigate  North America  in 1957,  and                                                               
together with two buoy tenders, they  went all the way around and                                                               
ended up on the East Coast.                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
1:50:56 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide 32,  and noted that the  bridge on the                                                               
left of the photo depicts  the old Juneau-Douglas bridge, and the                                                               
bridge on  the right depicts  the new Juneau-Douglas bridge.   He                                                               
advised that the  U.S. Coast Guard approves all  bridges over the                                                               
navigable waters of  the United States.   He suggested requesting                                                               
a review from the  U.S. Coast Guard as to what  they are doing in                                                               
Alaska today.   He described that there are  14 cutters stationed                                                               
around  the state,  17 aircraft,  an  air station  in Kodiak  and                                                               
Sitka, and 3 small boat stations.                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                
1:52:06 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide  33, and  advised that the  U.S. Coast                                                               
Guard continues  aids to  navigation, and  in long  ship channels                                                               
range markers are  installed: there is a forward  and after range                                                               
marker; one  is low and one  is high; when the  range markers are                                                               
lined  up, "you  are in  the channel."   The  photo is  the range                                                               
marker  installed   just  below  the  runway   at  the  Anchorage                                                               
International Airport where a moose photo-bombed his picture.                                                                   
                                                                                                                                
MR.   WHITE  advised   that  the   U.S.  Coast   Guard  maintains                                                               
approximately  1,300 aids  to navigation  around  the state,  and                                                               
some  are  seasonal.   For  example,  in the  Gastineau  Channel,                                                               
seasonal markers are installed in  the channel during the summer,                                                               
and they are  removed in the winter.  He  described the Gastineau                                                               
Channel as  a "very  tricky place," it  is getting  shallower and                                                               
shallower and  the U.S.  Coast Guard  does its  best to  keep the                                                               
channel as safe as possible.                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide 33b,  and advised that the  U.S. Coast                                                               
Guard is  the only  branch that  is not  under the  Department of                                                               
Defense.   It  originally  started under  the  Department of  the                                                               
Treasury  under Alexander  Hamilton, it  stayed there  until 1967                                                               
when  it was  moved  to the  U.S.  Department of  Transportation,                                                               
which   is  when   the  U.S.   Coast  Guard   was  assigned   the                                                               
responsibility  of  approving  bridges.     In  2002,  after  the                                                               
terrorist attacks  of September  11, 2001,  the U.S.  Coast Guard                                                               
was  moved  to  the  Department of  Homeland  Security  where  it                                                               
resides today.   The U.S. Coast  Guard is the only  branch of the                                                               
military allowed to  enforce civil law under  the Posse Comitatus                                                               
Act of  1878.  He  commented that the  country does not  want the                                                               
military enforcing  civil law,  but it does  want the  U.S. Coast                                                               
Guard enforcing all maritime laws.   He described it as good news                                                               
and bad  news that the  U.S. Coast Guard  is the only  branch not                                                               
housed under  the Department  of Defense  because the  U.S. Coast                                                               
Guard  is   always  competing  with  other   civilian  functions.                                                               
Previously  the U.S.  Coast  Guard was  under  the Department  of                                                               
Transportation  and   competed  with  freeways  for   money,  and                                                               
currently it is  competing for everything else that  is under the                                                               
Department of Homeland Security budget, he said.                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
1:54:39 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned to slides  34a-35a, and advised that on 8/23/17,                                                               
the USCGC  Maple, a  buoy tender  stationed in  Southeast Alaska,                                                               
celebrated  its  60th  anniversary.    The  USCGC  Maple  circum-                                                               
navigated North America, traveled all  the way around to the East                                                               
Coast,  and back  through the  Panama Canal  on its  way back  to                                                               
Alaska.                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to slide 35a,  and advised that the  U.S. Coast                                                               
Guard's white  flag will  always be  on the  right when  the five                                                               
flags of  the services are  displayed, and the U.S.  Army's white                                                               
flag is always displayed on the left.                                                                                           
                                                                                                                                
1:55:27 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE RAUSCHER  asked the history  of the colors  of the                                                               
flags.                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE answered  that he does not know the  history behind the                                                               
development of  the flag and  he would have to  perform research.                                                               
He opined  that it was  developed not  long after the  U.S. Coast                                                               
Guard became an official part of the military.                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                
1:56:09 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE REINBOLD referred to  slide 34b, and requested the                                                               
meaning of the banners in the  flag, and is the meaning of Semper                                                               
Paratus.                                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE answered  that  the  Latin on  top  of  the eagle,  "E                                                               
pluribus unum" is  the national motto, [which means  out of many,                                                               
one].   The U.S. Coast  Guard's motto is Semper  paratus, "always                                                               
ready",  and the  U.S.  Marine Corp.'s  motto  is Semper  fidelis                                                               
"always faithful."                                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                
CHAIR TUCK  noted that it  resembles the "U.S. Seal"  symbol with                                                               
the  arrows  and  the  olive  branch, and  the  13  colonies  are                                                               
represented in the stars.                                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                
1:57:27 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER  commented  that  that  is  the  national                                                               
crest, and E pluribus unum is the country's national motto.                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
1:58:04 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE turned  to slide  35b, and  described it  as the  U.S.                                                               
Coast Guard emblem,  and the stripes appeared in 1967.   Prior to                                                               
that time, U.S. Coast Guard ships  were white and the only way to                                                               
determine whether it  was a U.S. Coast Guard ship  was because it                                                               
had the letter "W" before the  hull number.  After 1967, all U.S.                                                               
Coast Guard  ships and boats  wore the racing stripe,  which many                                                               
other countries have  copied in trying to emulate  the U.S. Coast                                                               
Guard.                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                
1:58:45 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE turned to slide 36,  and noted that the picture depicts                                                               
the three ship colors, the top  left is the USCGC Maple, which is                                                               
black and  is a buoy tender.   These buoy tenders  are also known                                                               
as  "working  ships"  blue  collar  ships,  because  those  ships                                                               
maintain the  aids to navigation,  which is extremely  hard work.                                                               
The  servicemembers pull  the buoys  out of  the water  that have                                                               
been  sitting  there for  a  year  or  years and  are  completely                                                               
covered with barnacles, wherein the  buoys have to be refurbished                                                               
and make sure  everything is in working order,  and then returned                                                               
to their location.   All of the aids to  navigation, the floating                                                               
aids, the  buoys, the fixed aids  on shore, and the  day markers,                                                               
are maintained  by the U.S. Coast  Guard and it is  a huge amount                                                               
of work.  The ship on the right  is the USCGC Bertholf, it is the                                                               
newest of the  security class cutters, and the  bottom picture is                                                               
the  USCGC Healy,  all U.S.  Coast Guard  icebreakers in  today's                                                               
world are red, he explained.                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
1:59:55 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  referred to  slide 37,  and advised  that he  cut this                                                               
article  out of  the Anchorage  paper in  1999, it  is the  USCGC                                                               
Polar Sea taken from the boat  launch in Anchorage.  He explained                                                               
that  the  USCGC   Polar  Sea  and  the  USCGC   Polar  Star  are                                                               
sisterships built in  1976.  He explained the USCGC  Polar Sea is                                                               
now  permanently   tied  up  in   Seattle,  Washington,   and  is                                                               
essentially being used for parts  for its sistership, USCGC Polar                                                               
Star.    The U.S.  Coast  Guard  still  claims  that this  is  an                                                               
icebreaker but the USCGC Polar Sea  is not working, and the USCGC                                                               
Polar Star is  the only functional icebreaker the  service has at                                                               
this time.   The USCGC Polar  Star is becoming an  aging ship and                                                               
every time  they take it  out something happens, it  supports the                                                               
United  States interest  in Antarctic  every winter.   This  is a                                                               
huge  issue,  he  noted  because   the  U.S.  Coast  Guard  needs                                                               
icebreakers, another  icebreaker has  been approved but  there is                                                               
no money to build it at  this time.  Although, money was included                                                               
in the  budget last year  but it never  made it through  the U.S.                                                               
Senate, money is being put in  the budget this year and hopefully                                                               
there will  be enough  money to  build one  more icebreaker.   He                                                               
stressed  that  the  country  really   needs  five  to  ten  more                                                               
icebreakers,  but right  now the  U.S.  government is  struggling                                                               
just  to  get  one more.    He  described  that  the cost  of  an                                                               
icebreaker is  approximately $1  billion, and  it takes  about 10                                                               
years to build, which is a lot of lag time.                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
2:01:57 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  REINBOLD  commented that  Russia  has  "a ton  of                                                               
these"  and asked  how icebreakers  were taken  off the  nation's                                                               
radar with such a large, critical, and important coastline.                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE said that he  completely agrees, these ships were built                                                               
in the  1970s and  are over 40  years old.   He advised  that the                                                               
country needs to have a  national priority to get icebreakers out                                                               
there because as  the climate changes, this will  become more and                                                               
more  important and  he cannot  stress  this issue  enough.   Mr.                                                               
White opined  that approximately $700  million is in  the federal                                                               
budget, which is  not enough to build a whole  icebreaker, but at                                                               
least most of  the icebreaker could be completed.   Hopefully, he                                                               
suggested, the U.S.  Congress has the foresight  to actually pass                                                               
this budget.   As to how this  issue fell off the  radar, he said                                                               
that he honestly  does not know the answer to  that question.  He                                                               
noted   that   he  has   been   tracking   this  personally   for                                                               
approximately 15 years.   In 2010-2011, he was  working in Juneau                                                               
as a  staffer when the USCG  performed an update and  the Admiral                                                               
advised him, off the record, that  there was no plan to really go                                                               
after this  issue.  He  described this issue as  hugely important                                                               
for this state and nationally,  the USCG played such an important                                                               
role in  the past and icebreakers  are part of its  future.  This                                                               
is  an important  role  to  carry on  for  oil exploration,  more                                                               
cruise ship  passengers, more freight,  and so forth,  he pointed                                                               
out.                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
2:04:14 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE REINBOLD  stated that  the amount spent  on social                                                               
services  is approximately  $3.3  billion, and  the nation  could                                                               
build three icebreakers with that budget.                                                                                       
                                                                                                                                
MR.  WHITE stressed,  "That's nothing  compared  to the  military                                                               
budget.  We're  talking hundreds of [billions] of  dollars in the                                                               
military  budget."   The  USCG  is not  under  the Department  of                                                               
Defense, and  in all fairness,  the money that has  been proposed                                                               
is actually in  the U.S. Navy budget, which is  where it belongs.                                                               
In a  declared war, the  USCG becomes part  of the U.S.  Navy, he                                                               
reiterated.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
CHAIR  TUCK  corrected Mr.  White's  misstatement  and said  that                                                               
hundreds of "billions" of dollars are in the military budget.                                                                   
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE agreed that he meant billions of dollars.                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
2:05:13 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER opined  that the  federal government  has                                                               
authorized money for icebreakers  but not appropriated the money,                                                               
which is an important distinction.                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                
CHAIR TUCK pointed  out that there is a resolution  in the Alaska                                                               
House  of  Representatives  that  will be  going  to  the  Arctic                                                               
Policy,  Economic  Development  & Tourism  Special  Committee  to                                                               
address that issue.                                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER  further opined  that "our strategy  is to                                                               
pray for global warming to accelerate."                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE responded  that the thing about global  warming is that                                                               
it will  allow the nation  to have more  time in the  Arctic, but                                                               
during  the winter,  there will  still be  ice and  the need  for                                                               
icebreakers for  hundreds of years.   Therefore, he  pointed out,                                                               
this is still a huge issue.                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
2:06:05 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  turned to  slides 38-40,  advised that  slide 38  is a                                                               
picture of  himself in  boot camp,  and a  picture of  his patrol                                                               
ship.    Beginning in  1970,  the  USCGC Sebago  performed  ocean                                                               
stations and  long patrols  in the Atlantic  Ocean under  a major                                                               
traffic route.   Slide 39a  depicts a historical plaque  that was                                                               
put  in  at  the  Pensacola training  facility  three  years  ago                                                               
commemorating his ship.   He said he would not  explain slide 39b                                                               
because it  was not directly related  to the USCG.   He turned to                                                               
slide 40a, and commented that the  USCG receives a lot of ribbing                                                               
from the U.S.  Navy as "coasties" and this slide  is his friendly                                                               
ribbing back  to the U.S. Navy.   The slide depicts  a $4 billion                                                               
proto-type Navy ship that actually  broke down, and at the bottom                                                               
of  the picture  the caption  read,  "Hang on  We're Coming,"  to                                                               
rescue the  Navy ship.  Slide  40b represents a message  from the                                                               
Department  of Defense  to keep  everything safe,  and he  can no                                                               
longer access those research sites.                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                
2:08:06 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE   SADDLER  commented   that  he   appreciated  the                                                               
historical  lessons, and  asked whether  other maritime  nations,                                                               
with  the same  coastal protection  of revenue  interests, employ                                                               
the same  model of  a separate  naval warfare  branch, or  do the                                                               
countries incorporate it into their naval functions.                                                                            
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  related that interestingly,  he was talking  to former                                                               
Representative John Harris  yesterday, and his great  uncle was a                                                               
USCG captain who helped develop,  after World War II, the initial                                                               
Japanese Coast  Guard.  Mr.  White said  that Canada has  a coast                                                               
guard and the  United States and Canada work  closely together on                                                               
many issues.   The difference  with Canada  is that Canada  has a                                                               
discrete coast guard  that is similar to the USCG,  but in Canada                                                               
it is not a military force, it is  a civilian force.  As far as a                                                               
military function, he  opined, the Canadian Coast  Guard does not                                                               
have a role in the military.                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
2:09:32 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER requested the  grade/rank structure of the                                                               
USCG versus the U.S. Army or U.S. Navy.                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE responded  that the USCG mirrors the U.S.  Navy, and up                                                               
until 1967, their  uniforms were identical except  for "one small                                                               
thing" to the U.S. Navy.                                                                                                        
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER  requested a  description of  the enlisted                                                               
ranks.                                                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE answered  that it mirrors the U.S. Navy  in all aspects                                                               
and grades.                                                                                                                     
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE SADDLER asked whether  the retirement benefits are                                                               
the same in the USCG and the U.S. Navy.                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE replied  that the retirement benefits are  the same and                                                               
that  all  military  use  the same  scale  for  pay,  retirement,                                                               
veteran benefits, medical service, and so forth.                                                                                
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE SADLER asked whether  the accommodations or medals                                                               
for when the USCG comes under fire, are the same.                                                                               
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE replied  that they receive the  same accommodations and                                                               
the USCG is eligible for all  of the same medals for any military                                                               
service.   The USCG has been  in all of the  wars, he reiterated,                                                               
and the USCG  is a regular military service  with the peculiarity                                                               
of not being under the Department of Defense.                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                
2:11:34 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE RAUSCHER  thanked Mr.  White for  his presentation                                                               
because clearly, he  is dedicated to the USCG and  has a fondness                                                               
for history.                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
CHAIR TUCK  thanked Mr. White  as well  for his service,  being a                                                               
good advocate for  the armed forces during his  retired life, and                                                               
sharing the history he has researched.                                                                                          
                                                                                                                                
2:12:09 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
REPRESENTATIVE  SADDLER asked  whether  there is  an academy  for                                                               
USCG officers.                                                                                                                  
                                                                                                                                
MR. WHITE  responded that the  USCG has  an academy that  is like                                                               
the other military academies with  one difference, in every other                                                               
military  academy, a  person must  be appointed  by a  senator or                                                               
someone.  In the USCG Academy,  the only requirement to enter the                                                               
academy  is  to apply,  other  than  that,  the USCG  Academy  is                                                               
located in  New London, Connecticut, and  it is just like  all of                                                               
the other military academies with all the same military fun.                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
2:14:01 PM                                                                                                                    
                                                                                                                                
ADJOURNMENT                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                
There being no  further business before the  committee, the House                                                               
Special Committee  on Military and Veterans'  Affairs meeting was                                                               
adjourned at 2:13 p.m.                                                                                                          

Document Name Date/Time Subjects
USCG Alaska History Juneau.pdf HMLV 2/22/2018 1:00:00 PM
US Coast Guard Presentation